Table 3

Brief description of articles included for review (in alphabetical order)
Author, Title & Year Country Disease (if specified) Design and methods- survey, RCT, qualitative study Sample size
1 Bittman & Thomson. Invisible Support: The determinants of time spent in informal care. 2000. [11] Australia Method: survey. Quantitative analysis of ABS Time Use Surveys and Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. Uses this secondary data re: time burden/ use among carers, with a major focus on non-coresidential vs coresidential care. 14,315 carers
Characteristics of care recipients and informal carers include: living arrangements of carers and care recipients, level of disability, household income, poverty rates and effects on various lifestyle features.
2 Bittman et al. Making the invisible visible. The life and time(s) of informal caregivers. 2004. [12] Australia Method: survey and diary. Quantitative data from surveys and diaries from Canadian (N= 10,749) and Australian (N= 14,000 approximately) bureaux used to explore and compare time burden and time use among carers and non-carers, as well as methodological issues in obtaining data and measuring time use and caring activities. Multiple samples: patients and carers
Main variables are co-residency and non-care responsibilities.
3 Bittman, M. et al. The time cost of care. 2005. [13] Australia Method: survey and diary. This paper contrasts two different measures of care time using survey questions or a diary. Multiple samples: carers
4 Braithwaite, V. Bound to Care. 1990. [6] Australia Method: qualitative, descriptive and survey. Overall, takes a sociological view of what a caregiver is/does and means, it's not just tasks and burden, but a relationship and a responsibility. 138 carers
Although dated, and focused on care-givers, does provide some early basic data on time and other burdens in caring.
5 Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. Managing chronic illness at home: Three lines of work. 1985. [2] USA Mainly cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, & spinal injuries. Method: qualitative. Interviews and (auto) biographies of people with CI and their spouses. 60 couples: patients and carers
Uses the concept of "work" in managing CIs and types of work: illness, everyday and biographical work.
6 Ettner, S. et al. Investing time in health: do socio- economically disadvantaged patients spend more or less extra time on diabetes self-care? 2009. [26] USA Diabetes Method: survey. Comprehensive survey and statistical analysis, using several variables (education, marital status, income, minority group/ethnicity status, work status, clinical characteristics) but limited to one CI; looks at only foot care, exercise and (conflates) shopping/cooking. 11,927 patients
Objective: To examine associations between socioeconomic position and extra time patients spend on foot care, shopping/cooking, and exercise due to diabetes.
7 Hu, P. & Reuben, D. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with physicians during ambulatory visits. 2002. [24] USA Method: survey. Cross-sectional analysis of the 1998 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. 4,964 elderly patients
8 Infante, et al. How people with chronic illnesses view their care in general practice: a qualitative study. 2004. Australia Method: qualitative. 12 focus groups. 76 patients
Objectives: To explore the perceptions of patients with chronic conditions about the nature and quality of their care in general practice.
9 Ironmonger, D. The value of care and nurture provided by household work. 1994. [7] Australia Method: survey. Comparative statistical analysis of mainly ABS survey data of aggregates hours for aged care and related household activities Multiple samples: carers
10 Jenkins, C. Women, work, and care giving: How do these roles affect women's well-being? 1997. [8] USA Method: survey. Statistical analysis of data from the 1988 National Survey of Families & Households (USA); how much time in care- giving and other activities, and effects on stress levels. 14,500 female carers
11 Langa, K., et al. Informal caregiving for chronic lung disease among older Americans. 2002. [9] USA Lung disease Method: survey. Multivariable regression models using data from the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Study by survey. National population-based sample of 7,443 community- dwelling elderly patients >70.
Measurements: Weekly hours of informal care giving, and imputed cost of caregiver time.
The average number of hours per week of informal care was calculated for: activities of daily living (ADL); and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL).
12 McCoy, L. Time, self and the medication day: a closer look at the everyday work of 'adherence'. 2009. [17] Canada HIV Method: qualitative. 21 interviews and 16 focus-groups with people taking antiretroviral drugs. 79 patients
13 McKenna, K. et al. Comparison of time use, role participation and life satisfaction of older people after stroke with a sample without stroke. 2009. [21] Australia Stroke Method: qualitative & time use diary. Interviews with 23 participants and data compared with a prior study. Interviews prompted participant recall using calendars and diaries. 23 patients >65 yrs old 1– 3 yrs post-stroke (mean age
74.2 years, 69.6% men)
14 Paoletti, I. A half life: Women caregivers of older disabled relatives. 1999. [10] Italy Method: qualitative. Interviews and discourse analysis. 50 female paid and unpaid carers.
15 Pritchard, P. Doctors, patients and time. 1992. [25] UK Method: Descriptive. A narrative description about time and time use, different kinds of time, from both patients' and Doctors' perspective, their perceptions of the other's perceptions of time and its use and value. N/A
16 Reed, et al. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure monitoring with or without telephonic behavioral self-management in patients with hypertension. 2010. [31] USA Hypertension Method: RCT (other). A prospective economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial of 636 patients with hypertension participating in the study's 3 interventions. Medical costs were estimated using electronic data representing medical services delivered within the health system. Intervention-related costs were derived using information collected during the trial, administrative records, and published unit costs. 636 patients.
17 Russell, L. et al. Time requirements for diabetes self-management: Too much for many? 2005. [18] USA Diabetes Method: qualitative. A convenience sample of 8 certified diabetes educators to derive consensus-based estimates of the time required for all self-care tasks recommended by the American Diabetes Association. 8 certified diabetes educators
(concerning patient time use)
18 Russell, L. et al. Health- related activities in the American Time Use Survey. 2007. [20] USA Method: survey. Compilation and statistical analysis of ATUS survey data on Health-Related Activities in America. 34,000 patients
19 Russell, L. et al. How much time do patients spend on outpatient visits?: The American Time Use Survey. 2008. [22] USA Method: survey. Compilation and statistical analysis of ATUS survey data on outpatient visits. 1,621 random sample of patients from 2003–06 ATUS data, age >15
20 Safford, M. et al. How much time do patients with diabetes spend on self-care? 2005. [19] USA Diabetes Method: survey. Cross-sectional survey of 1482 diabetic patients enrolled in 3 northeastern United States managed care plans. Statistical analysis using and linear regressions. 1,482 diabetic patients (57.9% >55 yrs)
21 Wolf, D. Valuing informal elder care. 2004. [14] USA Method: modelling. Addresses through modelling the problem of attaching a monetary value to informal elder care, and why we should; uses NLTCS data to illustrate. N/A
22 Yabroff, K. et al. Estimating patient time costs associated with colorectal cancer care. 2005. [23] USA Colorectal cancer Method: survey. Quantitative, longitudinal and comparative time data for cancer/non-cancer care based on past studies and medical records (SEER-Medicare database), and estimates a monetary value of patients' time based on BLS wage rates. 75,470 patients with matched controls

Jowsey et al.

Jowsey et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1044   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1044

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