Table 5

12-month changes for intervention and control patients: self-management behavior, self-efficacy and health status
Variable Mean ± SD P-valuea
Intervention (n = 98) Control (n = 78)
Self-management behavior
  Aerobic exercise (minutes/week) 23.11 ± 176.71 −18.27 ± 156.22 0.001
  Eating fatty foods (grams per day) −0.06 ±15.76 0.92 ±6.60 0.14
  Eating fruits (pieces per day) 0.12 ± 0.61 0.16 ± 0.91 0.51
  Eating vegetables (grams per day) 22.94 ± 154.43 −10.26 ± 165.75 0.60
  Cognitive symptom managementb 0.37 ± 1.06 0.03 ± 1.16 0.10
  Communication with medical doctorb 0.41 ± 1.54 0.22 ± 1.09 0.97
  Examining feet (times per week) 0.46 ± 2.08 0.45 ± 2.86 0.76
Self-efficacy to manage diabetesc 0.18 ± 2.24 −0.53 ± 1.96 0.02
Health status
  Self-rated healthd −0.04 ± 0.82 0.12 ± 0.70 0.10
  Energyb −0.16 ± 1.18 −0.07 ± 1.01 0.20
  Health distresse 0.04 ± 1.26 0.14 ± 1.07 0.78
  Fatiguef 0.45 ± 2.49 0.35 ± 2.30 0.39
  Illness intrusivenessg 2.50 ± 15.68 6.81 ± 18.20 0.001
  Depressionh 4.49 ± 4.99 3.92 ± 5.01 0.43
  BMI 0.06 ± 1.14 0.28 ± 1.26 0.22
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1.48 ± 12.03 5.20 ± 12.34 0.04
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1.45 ± 8.86 2.65 ± 7.72 0.54

a Analysis of covariance on 12-month post-test scores controlling for the baseline value of study variables, age, sex, education, marital status, hypertension, and baseline number of fatigue and illness intrusiveness (two-tailed P-values).

b 0–5 increase = improvement.

c 1–10 increase = improvement.

d 1–5 decrease = improvement.

e 0–5 decrease = improvement.

f 0–10 decrease = improvement.

g 13–91 decrease = improvement.

h 0–30 decrease = improvement.

Liu et al.

Liu et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1043   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1043

Open Data