Table 3

Associations between pre-ART characteristics and viral load >400 copies/ml at week 24

Type of exposure

Number (%) in women with VL≤400 copies/ml at week 24 (%)

Number (%) in women with VL > 400 copies/ml at week 24 (%)

Univariable odds ratio (CI 95%)

p-value


Pre-ART initiation (n;%)


Demographics

Ever reported pill count level <95% over 24 weeks

No (92; 63%)

87 (64%)

5 (45%)

1

Yes (55; 37%)

49 (36%)

6 (55%)

2.1 (0.5-9.3); 0.33*

Born in South Africa

No (18; 12%)

15 (11%)

3 (27%)

1

Yes (128; 88%)

120 (89%)

8 (73%)

0.3 (0.1-2.2); 0.14*

Age (years)

<30 (78; 53%)

70 (51%)

8 (72.7%)

1

≥30 (69; 47%)

66 (49%)

3 (27.3%)

0.4 (0.1-1.7); 0.22*

Education level

> grade 11 (54; 37%)

52 (39%)

2 (18%)

1

≤ grade 11 (91; 63%)

82 (61%)

9 (82%)

2.9 (0.6-28.0); 0.21*

Marital status

Single/divorced/widow (122; 83%)

114 (84%)

8 (73%)

1

Married/partner (25; 17%)

22 (16%)

3 (27%)

1.9 (0.3-8.9); 0.40*

Socio-economic status (SES)

Employed

No (101; 69%)

95 (70%)

6 (55%)

1

Yes (46; 31%)

41 (30%)

5 (45%)

1.9 (0.4-8.0); 0.32*

Type of housing

House/flat/rented room (93; 64%)

88 (65%)

5 (45%)

1

Shack/outbuilding (54; 37%)

48 (35%)

6 (55%)

2.2 (0.5-9.6); 0.21*

Number of children living at home

0-1 child (89; 60%)

80 (59%)

9 (82%)

1

≥ 2 children (58; 40%)

56 (41%)

2 (18%)

0.3 (0-1.6); 0.20*

Lack of financial support from partner/husband

Support (67; 45%)

62 (45%)

5 (45%)

1

No support (80; 55%)

74 (54%)

6 (55%)

1.00 (0.2-4.1); 1.00*

Water source inside home

No (74; 50%)

68 (50%)

6 (55%)

1

Yes (73; 50%)

68 (50%)

5 (45%)

0.8 (0.2-3.5); 1.00*

Toilet at home

No (86; 59%)

78 (57%)

8 (73%)

1

Yes (61; 41%)

58 (43%)

3 (27%)

0.5 (0.1-2.2); 0.36*

Electricity at home

No (23; 16%)

22 (16%)

1 (9%)

1

Yes (124; 84%)

114 (84%)

10 (91%)

1.9 (0.2-87.5); 1.0*

Refrigerator at home

No (50; 34%)

47 (35%)

3 (27%)

1

Yes (97; 66%)

89 (65%)

8 (73%)

1.4 (0.3-8.6); 0.75*

Radio at home

No (28; 19%)

26 (19%)

2 (18%)

1

Yes (119; 81%)

110 (81%)

9 (82%)

1.1 (0.2-10.7); 1.00*

TV at home

No (27; 18%)

25 (18%)

2 (18%)

1

Yes (120; 82%)

111 (82%)

9 (82%)

1.0 (0.2-10.2); 1.00*

Landline telephone

No (131; 89%)

121 (89%)

10 (91%)

1

Yes (16; 11%)

15 (11%)

1 (9%)

0.8 (0-6.5); 1.00*

Pre-treatment clinical characteristics

Exposed to sdNVP

No (57; 39%)

51 (38%)

6 (55%)

1

Yes (90; 61%)

85 (62%)

5 (45%)

0.5 (0.1-2.1); 0.34*

VL level (copies/ml) pre-ART

Median (range)

110,000

(760 - >750,000)

92,300

(6,600 - 359,000)

p = 0.34

CD4 cell count - pre-ART

Median (range)

164 (2 - 430)

191 (7 - 355)

p = 0.91


Quality of life (pre-ART)

Good (score 12-23) (38; 26%)

34 (25%)

4 (36%)

1

Intermediate (score 24-35) (75; 51%)

70 (51%)

5 (46%)

0.6 (0.1-3.3); 0.48*

Poor (score 36-55) (34; 23%)

32 (24%)

2 (18%)

0.5 (0-4.0); 0.68*

Disclosure and social support Disclosed HIV status

No (44; 30%)

42 (31%)

2 (20%)

1

Yes (102; 70%)

94 (69%)

8 (80%)

1.8 (0.3-17.9); 0.72*

Treatment buddy

No (22; 15%)

21 (15%)

1 (9%)

1

Yes (125; 85%)

115 (85%)

10 (91%)

1.8 (0.2-93.0); 1.00*

Another adult at home, living with HIV

No (46; 57%)

43 (57%)

3 (50%)

1

Yes (35; 43%)

32 (43%)

3 (50%)

1.3 (0.2-10.7); 1.00*

Another child at home, living with HIV

No (12; 12%)

12 (13%)

0

1

Yes (87; 88%)

79 (87%)

8 (100%)

NA; 0.59*

At week 24

Quality of life (post-ART)

Good (score 12-23) (95; 65%)

88 (65%)

7 (64%)

1

Intermediate (score 24-35) (45; 31%)

42 (31%)

3 (27%)

0.9 (0.1-4.2); 1.00*

Poor (score 36-55) (6; 4%)

5 (4%)

1 (9%)

2.5 (0-27.4); 0.40*

Moved to a new accommodation

No (113; 77%)

105 (78%)

8 (73%)

1

Yes (33; 23%)

30 (22%)

3 (27%)

1.3 (0.2-5.9); 0.71*

Lost job

No (138; 95%)

128 (95%)

10 (91%)

1

Yes (8; 5%)

7 (5%)

1 (9%)

1.8 (0-16.7); 0.47*

Physically attacked

No (133; 91%)

122 (90%)

11 (100%)

1

Yes (13; 9%)

13 (10%)

0

NA

Treated badly because of HIV status

No (129; 88%)

120 (89%)

9 (82%)

1

Yes (17; 12%)

15 (11%)

2 (18%)

1.8 (0.2-9.8); 0.62*

Got divorced/separated

No (118; 80%)

109 (80%)

9 (82%)

1

Yes (29; 20%)

27 (20%)

2 (18%)

0.9 (0.1-4.7); 1.00*

A child died since ART initiation

No (140; 96%)

130 (96%)

10 (91%)

1

Yes (6; 4%)

5 (4%)

1 (9%)

2.6 (0.1-26.6); 0.38*

Any family member died since ART initiation

No (114; 78%)

108 (80%)

6 (55%)

1

Yes (32; 22%)

27 (20%)

5 (45%)

3.3 (0.7-14.0); 0.06*

Cumulative number of life events

0 (63; 43%)

59 (44%)

4 (36%)

1

1 (52; 36%)

48 (36%)

4 (36%)

1.2 (0.2-6.9); 1.00*

2 (15; 10%)

14 (10%)

1 (9%)

1.1 (0-11.8); 1.00*

≥3 (16; 11%)

14 (10%)

2 (19%)

2.1 (0.2-16.3); 0.59*


TV, television, sdNVP, single dose nevirapine; VL, viral load; ART, antiretroviral therapy

* 2-sided Fisher's exact test

El-Khatib et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:88   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-88

Open Data