Table 1

Pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) characteristics and incomplete adherence over first 24 weeks of therapy (ever with pill count <95% past 24 weeks)

Number (%) of those with

    complete
adherence (n = 92)

Number (%) of those with

    incomplete
adherence

(n = 55)

Univariable odds ratio

(95% CI); p-value


Demographics Born in South Africa

No (18; 12%)

8 (9%)

10 (18%)

1

Yes (128; 88%)

83 (91%)

45 (82%)

0.4 (0.2-1.2); 0.10

Age (years)

<30 (78; 53%)

50 (54%)

28 (51%)

1

≥30 (69; 47%)

42 (46%)

27 (49%)

1.2 (0.6-2.2); 0.69

Education level

> grade 11 (54; 37%)

41 (45%)

13 (24%)

1

≤ grade 11 (91; 63%)

50 (55%)

41 (76%)

2.6 (1.2-5.6); 0.01

Marital status

Single/divorced/widow (122; 83%)

74 (80%)

48 (87%)

1

Married/partner (25; 17%)

18 (20%)

7 (13%)

0.6 (0.2-1.5); 0.29

Socio-economic status (SES) Employed

No (101; 69%)

64 (70%)

37 (67%)

1

Yes (46; 31%)

28 (30%)

18 (33%)

1.1 (0.5-2.3); 0.77

Type of housing

House/flat/rented room (93; 63%)

63 (68%)

30 (55%)

1

Shack/outbuilding (54; 37%)

29 (32%)

25 (45%)

1.8 (0.9-3.6); 0.09

Number of children living at home

0-1 child (89; 61%)

57 (62%)

32 (58%)

1

≥ 2 children (58; 39%)

35 (38%)

23 (42%)

1.2 (0.6-2.3); 0.65

Lack of financial support from partner/husband

Support (67; 45%)

49 (53%)

18 (33%)

1

Lack of support (80; 55%)

43 (47%)

37 (67%)

2.3 (1.1-4.8); 0.02

Water source inside home

No (74; 50%)

41 (45%)

33 (60%)

1

Yes (73; 50%)

51 (55%)

22 (40%)

0.5 (0.3-1.1); 0.07

Toilet at home

No (86; 58%)

51 (55%)

35 (64%)

1

Yes (61; 42%)

41 (45%)

20 (36%)

0.7 (0.4-1.4); 0.33

Electricity at home

No (23; 16%)

13 (14%)

10 (18%)

1

Yes (124; 84%)

79 (86%)

45 (82%)

0.7 (0.3-1.8); 0.51

Refrigerator at home

No (50; 34%)

27 (29%)

23 (42%)

1

Yes (97; 66%)

65 (71%)

32 (58%)

0.6 (0.3-1.2); 0.12

Radio at home

No (28; 19%)

15 (16%)

13 (24%)

1

Yes (119; 81%)

77 (84%)

42 (76%)

0.6 (0.3-1.5); 0.28

TV at home

No (27; 18%)

12 (13%)

15 (27%)

1

Yes (120; 82%)

80 (87%)

40 (73%)

0.4 (0.2-1.0); 0.03

Landline telephone

No (131; 89%)

82 (89%)

49 (89%)

1

Yes (16; 11%)

10 (11%)

6 (11%)

1.0 (0.3-2.9); 0.99

Pre-treatment clinical characteristics Exposed to sdNVP

No (57; 39%)

30 (33%)

27 (49%)

1

Yes (90; 61%)

62 (67%)

28 (51%)

0.5 (0.2-1.0); 0.05

VL level, pre-ART (copies/ml)

127,500

97,000

Median (range)

(760 - >750,000)

(6,600 - >750,000)

p = 0.17

CD4 level (cells/μl)

Median (range)

155 (7 - 430)

189 (2 - 324)

p = 0.16


Felt too sick to go to work or to do the daily activities, during the last 30 days

No (104; 71%)

64 (70%)

40 (73%)

1

Yes (43; 29%)

28 (30%)

15 (27%)

0.9 (0.4-1.8); 0.68*

Traditional medicine/herbs in the last 3 months

No (126; 87%)

79 (86%)

47 (89%)

1

Yes (19; 13%)

13 (14%)

6 (11%)

0.8 (0.3-2.2); 0.63

Quality of life

Good (score 12-23) (38; 26%)

27 (29%)

11 (20%)

1

Intermediate (score 24-35) (75; 51%)

43 (47%)

32 (58%)

1.8 (0.8-4.3); 0.16

Poor (score 36-55) (34; 23%)

22 (24%)

12 (22%)

1.3 (0.5-3.6); 0.57

Disclosure and social support Disclosed HIV status

No (44; 30%)

27 (29%)

17 (31%)

1

Yes (102; 70%)

65 (71%)

37 (69%)

0.9 (0.4-1.9); 0.79

Treatment buddy

No (22; 15%)

11 (12%)

11 (20%)

1

Yes (125; 85%)

81 (88%)

44 (80%)

0.5 (0.2-1.4); 0.19

Another adult at home living with HIV

No (46; 57%)

29 (60%)

17 (51%)

1

Yes (35; 43%)

19 (40%)

16 (49%)

1.4 (0.5-3.9); 0.50*

Another child at home living with HIV

No (12; 12%)

9 (15%)

3 (8%)

1

Yes (87; 88%)

53 (85%)

34 (92%)

1.9 (0.4-11.8); 0.53*


TV, television, sdNVP, single dose nevirapine; VL, viral load; ART, antiretroviral therapy

* 2-sided Fisher's exact test

El-Khatib et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:88   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-88

Open Data