Table 2

Beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate modelsa looking at factors associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations

Variables

Lutein/zeaxanthin (nmol/L)

ß-cryptoxanthin (nmol/L)

Lycopene (nmol/L)

α-carotene (nmol/L)

ß-carotene (nmol/L)


Age group (yrs)

15-24

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

25-34

17.26 (-5.04, 39.55)

-3.92 (-26.67, 18.83)

-2.11 (-46.96, 42.74)

13.55 (319, 23.92)

42.44 (-1.07, 85.95)

35-44

-2.64 (-25.73, 20.46)

4.04 (-19.54, 27.63)

-64.14 (-110.60, -17.69)

16.61 (5.87, 27.36)

79.39 (34.32, 124.46)

45-54

23.62 (-1.31, 48.55)

49.15 (23.71, 74.58)

-45.19 (-95.33, 4.95)

25.23 (13.65, 36.82)

134.24 (85.59, 182.89)

55-64

36.62 (4.67, 68.56)

47.02 (14.42, 79.61)

-125.88 (-190.13, -61.63)

15.65 (0.80, 30.49)

166.36 (104.02, 228.69)

65+

48.33 (5.16, 91.50)

66.47 (22.42, 110.52)

-51.74 (-138.57, 35.09)

24.24 (4.19, 44.30)

164.02 (79.78, 248.27)


Sex

Male

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Female

8.26 (-7.48, 23.99)

5.15 (-10.92, 21.23)

-33.15 (-64.79, -1.50)

13.18 (5.87, 20.49)

75.80 (45.09, 106.50)


SES quintile

1

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

2

11.59 (-15.86, 39.04)

4.79 (-23.27, 32.86)

20.66 (-34.56, 73.87)

0.35 (-12.41, 13.10)

28.85 (-24.72, 82.41)

3

30.01 (6.15, 53.87)

1.78 (-22.63, 26.20)

14.82 (-33.17, 62.81)

-3.29 (-14.38, 7.80)

-6.05 (-52.60, 40.51)

4

65.51 (37.18, 93.84)

6.87 (-22.12, 35.87)

47.44 (-9.55, 104.43)

7.44 (-5.75, 20.64)

23.95 (-31.35, 79.24)

5

88.49 (59.51, 117.47)

21.58 (-8.04, 51.20)

105.22 (46.94, 163.51)

17.29 (3.82, 30.75)

86.10 (29.55, 142.65)

p-trend

<0.001

0.202

0.001

0.019

0.026


Poor or fair health

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Good or better health

8.75 (-9.33, 26.82)

0.83 (-17.63, 19.29)

6.78 (-29.58, 43.14)

9.24 (0.84, 17.64)

34.64 (-0.63, 69.29)


Normal cholesterol

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Hypercholesterolaemia

40.20 (24.15, 56.25)

19.92 (3.52, 36.31)

91.31 (59.03, 123.59)

12.53 (5.06, 20.00)

76.62 (45.30, 107.94)


No dyslipidaemia

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Dyslipidaemia

-14.60 (-30.64, 1.43)

-14.12 (-30.48, 2.23)

-65.87 (-98.11,-33.62)

-13.27 (-20.73, -5.82)

-63.38 (-94.67, -32.10)


Glucose tolerance

Normal

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Abnormalb

-16.59 (-39.16, 5.98)

-24.83 (-47.88, -1.77)

-44.21 (-89.62, 1.19)

-17.98 (-28.48, -7.49)

-105.20 (-149.26, -61.15)

Diabetic

1.28 (-21.09, 23.65)

-27.59 (-50.45, -4.73)

-74.27 (-119.26, -29.27)

-22.63 (-33.03, -12.23)

-140.07 (-183.73, 96.41)


Waist to hip ratio

Non-obese

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Obese

-3.19 (-23.42, 17.04)

-11.34 (-31.98, 9.30)

-0.28 (-40.97, 40.41)

1.62 (-7.80, 11.04)

-2.75 (-42.23, 36.73)


Body mass index

Underweight

-11.47 (-38.57, 15.63)

-6.04 (-33.69, 21.61)

4.84 (-49.67, 59.35)

-0.45 (-13.15, 12.25)

-7.03 (-59.91, 45.86)

Normal

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Overweight

-0.23(-20.56, 20.10)

5.26 (-15.48, 26.00)

29.20 (-11.69, 70.08)

8.03 (-1.42, 17.47)

-12.25 (-51.92, 27.42)

Obese

-23.88 (-45.09, -2.69)

-7.34 (-29.00, 14.31)

-14.13 (-56.79, 28.53)

-4.52 (-14.37, 5.33)

-57.15 (-98.31, -15.76)


Non-smoker

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Current smoker

-42.53 (-58.39, -26.68)

-52.07(-68.26, -35.88)

-44.87 (-76.77, -12.97)

-17.66 (-25.03, -10.29)

-76.79 (-107.74, -45.84)


Non-alcohol consumer

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Alcohol consumer

9.69 (-7.29, 26.66)

-4.26 (-21.63, 13.11)

42.14 (7.99, 76.29)

8.17 (0.27, 16.07)

17.44 (-15.69, 50.57)


Adjusted R2

0.15

0.10

0.15

0.15

0.21


a The models included only those variables shown in the table.

b Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose combined.

Hodge et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:76   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-76

Open Data