Table 3

Associations between fast food availability and reported days ate fast food, by urbanicitya [beta coefficient (95% CI)]b, c, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave III (young adulthood; 2001-02)

Non-urban

Low density urban

High density urban


N = 3,662

N = 6,140

N = 3,348


Fast food availability measure


Chain fast food restaurant within 3 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

---

-0.01 (-0.03, 0.00)

0.02 (-0.01, 0.04)


Count ≥1 versus 0

-0.08 (-0.16, 0.01)

---

---



Sensitivity analyses


Chain fast food restaurant within 3 km Euclidean buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

---

-0.01 (-0.02, 0.01)

0.02 (0.00, 0.04)


Ccount per 10,000 population

---

-0.01 (-0.02, 0.01)

0.05 (0.00, 0.09)


Count ≥1 versus 0

-0.03 (-0.11, 0.06)

---

---


Chain fast food restaurant within 1 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

---

---

0.01 (0.00, 0.02)


Count ≥1 versus 0

---

---

---


Chain + non-chain e fast food restaurant within 3 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

---

-0.01 (-0.01, 0.00)

0.00 (0.00, 0.00)


Count ≥1 versus 0

0.05 (-0.02, 0.13)

---

---


a non-urban: distance to UA > 0, low density urban: distance to UA = 0 & % land developed ≤95%, high density urban: = distance to UA = 0 & % land developed > 95%

b Negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, race, parental education, household income, owning car, relationship type, having any children, population density (except model of count per population measure), %college educated, employed (except where effect measure modification), > 20% population below FPL, % non-Hispanic White

c Dashes represent un-estimated associations; 1) continuous measures in non-urban areas and dichotomous measures in low- and high-density areas 2) measure within network 1 km in non- and low-density urban areas.

d Each sensitivity measure was modeledb separately as continuous variables in low and high density strata and dichotomously in non-urban stratum.

e Chain and non chain outlets defined by SIC codes 58120307, 58120300-58120315, 58120600, 58120602.

Richardson et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:543   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-543

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