Open Access Research article

Changing patterns of tobacco consumption in Mozambique: evidence from a migrant study

Nuno Lunet12*, Carla Araújo123, Carla Silva-Matos4, Albertino Damasceno5, Lídia Gouveia6 and Ana Azevedo12

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal

2 Institute of Public Health - University of Porto (ISPUP), Porto, Portugal

3 Department of Cardiology, Centro Hospitalar de Entre o Douro e Vouga, EPE, Hospital de São Sebastião, Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal

4 Department of Non-Communicable Diseases, Mozambique Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique

5 Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique

6 Department of Mental Health, Mozambique Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique

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BMC Public Health 2011, 11:322  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-322

Published: 16 May 2011



Maputo, the Mozambique capital, contrasts with the rest of the country with regard to its sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of tobacco exposure. We conducted a migrant study to compare the prevalence of manufactured-cigarette smoking and traditional forms of tobacco use among dwellers in the capital who were also born in Maputo City (MC/MC) with those born in southern (SP/MC) and northern (NP/MC) provinces, and additionally with inhabitants in the latter regions.


In 2003, a representative sample of 12,902 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated. We computed age- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95%-confidence intervals (95%CI) using Poisson regression.


The prevalence of any type of tobacco consumption among Maputo City inhabitants born in other provinces contrasted with the pattern observed in locally born inhabitants (SP/MC vs. MC/MC: men, PR, 0.61; 95%CI, 0.44-0.85; women, PR, 0.38, 95%CI, 0.18-0.79; NP/MC vs. MC/MC: men, PR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.34-1.29; women, PR, 4.56, 95%CI, 1.78-11.69); the prevalence among city inhabitants born in other provinces resembled the pattern seen in inhabitants of their provinces of origin. Traditional forms of tobacco consumption among men were rare in Maputo City, which is in stark contrast to the situation in other provinces.


Cultural background, affordability, and availability of different types of tobacco in urban Mozambique need to be considered when developing strategies to control the tobacco epidemic.

Tobacco; Survey; Migrants; Mozambique