Table 1

List of themes

Themes that emerged from the regional study

Themes covered in this paper


1. Socio-cultural norms

2. Sensory Characteristics of waterpipe

3. Pros and cons of waterpipe preparation

4. Metaphors

5. Consumerism (Availability, Affordability, Frequency, Cost, Innovation)

6. Indicators of dependence of waterpipe smoking

7. Comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe

8. Health effect of smoking

9. Motivation to smoke (Coping, Entertainment, State of mind, Boredom)

10. Intervention (Media, Awareness, Policy, Regulations, Government role)

11. Tradition


Nakkash et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:315   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-315

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