Table 3 

Effect size of association, differences in prevalence and description of strength of association 

Association 
Prevalence of tooth loss (%) 




Type of exposure 
First author, year 
Sex 
Effect size (95% CI) 
Type 
Current smoker 
Nonsmoker 
Difference 
Strength of association 


Current smokers 
Randolph, 2001 
M F 
1.69 (1.31, 2.20) 
OR 
50 57 
41 46 
9 11 
Moderate Moderate 
Klein, 2004 
M, F 
4.04 (2.52, 6.49) 
OR 
92.3 
79.5 
12.8 
Moderate 

Musacchio, 2007 
M, F 
4.01 (2.59, 6.20) 
OR 
48.1** 
42.3** 
5.8** 
Weak 

Ojima, 2007 
M F 
2.21 (1.40, 3.50) 1.70 (1.13, 2.55) 
OR 
39.3 43.2 
21.8 29.4 
17.5 13.8 
Moderate Moderate 

Hanioka, 2007 
M F 
2.24 (1.28, 3.94) 2.74 (1.46, 5.16) 
OR 
36.9 38.9 
28.5 38.6 
8.4 0.3 
Moderate Weak 

Mundt, 2007 
M, F 
2.3 (1.6, 3.4)* 
OR 
21.1** 
8.4** 
12.7** 
Moderate 



Krall, 2006 
M 
2.1 (1.5, 3.1) 
HR 
Weak 

Dietrich, 2007 
M 
2.3 (2.1, 2.5)* 
HR 
Moderate 



Former smokers 
Randolph, 2001 
M F 
1.26 (1.04, 1.54) 
OR 
45 55 
41 46 
4 9 
Weak*** Moderate 
Klein, 2004 
M, F 
1.57 (1.25, 1.98) 
OR 
85.8 
79.5 
6.3 
Weak*** 

Musacchio, 2007 
M, F 
3.42 (2.42, 4.82) 
OR 
45.5** 
42.3** 
3.2** 
Weak 

Ojima, 2007 
M F 
1.25 (0.55, 2.86) 0.52 (0.23, 1.18) 
OR 
26.3 20.0 
21.8 29.4 
4.5 9.4 
NS*** 

Hanioka, 2007 
M F 
1.55 (0.88, 2.74) 1.17 (0.44, 3.09) 
OR 
38.6 34.3 
28.5 38.6 
10.1 4.3 
NS*** 

Mundt, 2007 
M, F 
1.7 (1.0, 3.1)* 
OR 
12.1** 
8.4** 
3.7** 
NS*** 



Krall, 2006 
M 
1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 
HR 
NS*** 

Dietrich, 2007 
M 
1.2 (1.2, 1.3)* 
HR 
Weak*** 



The evidence of weak to moderate association between smoking and tooth loss was consistent in highquality studies, and the effect size was consistently smaller for former smokers than for current smokers. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; HR, hazard ratio; *extracted from the category that included the median value of the group as a representative because the effect size for all current or all former smokers was not reported; **calculated by reviewer based on date in the table in the original literature; ***lower rank than current smokers 

Hanioka et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:221 doi:10.1186/1471245811221 