Open Access Research article

Causal assessment of smoking and tooth loss: A systematic review of observational studies

Takashi Hanioka1*, Miki Ojima2, Keiko Tanaka3, Keitaro Matsuo4, Fumihito Sato4 and Hideo Tanaka4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan

2 Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

3 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan

4 Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan

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BMC Public Health 2011, 11:221  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-221

Published: 8 April 2011

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Journals used for hand-search.

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Additional file 2:

Criteria used to describe the strength of evidence of relationship.

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Additional file 3:

Literature excluded for quality assessment by reasons for exclusion.

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