Table 2

Overview of studies on childhood psychosocial factors and overweight and obesity

No.

Authors

Year

Nation/Abbr.

N

Age at baseline

Follow up (years)

Risk factor

Outcome

Effect size (95%CI or SE)

(adjusted)

Study quality score1


O1 [67]

Giskes et al.

2008

NL

GLOBE

1,465

40-60

13

Father´s occupation

blue-, white collar, professional

Self-reported weight, height², BMI change

OR (CI) blue vs. professional

m 0.9 (0.6; 1.4)

w 2.8 (1.6; 5.2)

1 (D = 0; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 0)

O2 [65]

Kristensen et al.

2006

DK

EHYS

384

8-10 (3rd grade)

6

Mother´s occupation

blue-white collar

Measured weight, height³, Developing overweight at T2

OR (CI)

blue vs. white collar

2.4 (1.02; 5.4)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)

O3 [54]

Novak et al.

2005

SE

1,044

16

14

Father´s occupation

blue-white collar

Measured weight, height (16y)4/self-reported (30y)²

OR (CI)

blue vs. white collar

m 1.4 (0.7; 2.6)

w 1.4 (0.8; 1.4)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)

O4 [66]

Elgar et al.

2005

UK

HBSC

355

12.3 (mean)

4

Parental occupationb

Measured weight, height4

β (SE)

-0.05 (0.08)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)

O5 [55]

Power et al.

2003

UK

11,405

0

33

Father´s occupation

5 levels a

Self-reported weight, height; 90th intracohort percentile

OR (CI), continuous variable

m 1.04 (0.9; 1.2)

w 1.10 (1.07; 1.1)

3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)

O6 [56]

Laitinen et al.

2001

FIN

6,279

0

31

Father´s occupation

5 levels b

Measured height, weight at 14y6, at 31y2

β (SE) social class VI vs. IIIb

m 0.05 (0.16)

w 0.48 (0.17)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 1)

Self-reported weight and height; IOTF cut-points for obesity in youth; BMI ≥30 kg/m² in adulthood

Difference in age at onset of obesity

3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)


O7 [68]

Lee et al.

2009

USA

Add Health

9,730

12-19

7

Parental education

2 levels </≥high school

measured weight, height;2,3 become obese, stay obes

β (SE) stay obese

m 0.467(0.147)**

w 0.481(0.152)**

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)

O8 [60]

Koupil et al.

2007

SE

6,535

(male conscripts)

18.2 (mean)

18

Maternal education

3 levels;c (register data)

Measured height, weight at 18y.²

OR (CI) lowest vs. highest

1.03 (0.6; 1.8)

4 (D = 1; R = 0; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)

O9 [57]

Salsberry et al.

2007

USA

NLSCM

3,368

0

13

Maternal education

metric- number of years.

Measured height, weight.5,7

OR (CI)

0.97 (0.9; 1.03)

5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)

O10 [58]

Dubois et al.

2006

CDN

QLSCD

1,550

0

4,5

Maternal education

4 levelsd

Measured weight, height.5

OR (CI) lowest vs. highest

1.4 (0.8; 2.4)

5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)

O11 [61]

Strauss et al.

1999

USA

NLSY

2,913

0-8

6

Maternal education

3 levelsf

Measured height, weight; obesity incidence6

RR (CI) lowest vs. highest

0.96 (0.7; 1.4)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 1; C = 1)

[69]

Ballistreri et al.

2009

USA

ECLS-K

12,696

5-6 (Kindergarten)

6

Parental education

3 levelsg

Measured height, weight, BMI growth curve models

β (SE) for growth in BMI

0.007* (0.003)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)

[59]

Howe et al.

2010

UK

ALSPAC

7,772

0

15-16

Maternal education

4 levelsh

DXA- assessed total fat mass

SII (CI)

m 1.21 (1.08;1.36)

w 1.34 (1.23;1.46)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)

Self-reported weight and height; IOTF cut-points for obesity in youth; BMI > = 30 in adulthood

Difference in age at onset of obesity

3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)


O12 [62]

Gordon-Larson et al.

2007

USA

Add Health

14,654

12-19

7

Family income

</≥ 26.000 US$

Self-reported weight and height;2,3 age at onset of obesity

β (CI)

onset low vs. high income

-2.6 (-3.8; -1.3)**

3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)

O13 [57]

Salsberry et al.

2007

USA

NLSCM

3,368

0

13

Family income

lifetime and 1990 per capita income in US$

Measured height and weight;5,7

OR (CI)

1.0 (0.99; 1.00)

5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)

O14 [58]

Dubois et al.

2006

CDN

QLSCD

1,550

0

4,5

Family income

</≥20000 CN$/y

Measured weight, height; Obesity 5

OR (CI) < vs. ≥ 20000 CN$

2.5 (1.3; 4.8)**

5 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 1)

O15 [61]

Strauss et al.

1999

USA

NLSY

2,913

0-8

6

Family income

intracohortal 15th/85th percentile

Measured height, weight; obesity incidence6

RR (CI) lowest vs. highest family income

2.8 (1.4; 5.8)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 1; C = 1)

O16 [69]

Ballistreri et al.

2009

USA

ECLS-K

12,696

5-6 (Kindergarten)

6

Log transformed yearly Family income in US$

Measured height, weight, BMI growth curve models

β (SE) for growth in BMI

0.003 (0.001)

4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)


GLOBE: Gezondheid en LevensOmstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken (health and living conditions of the population of Eindhoven and its surroundings)

EHYS: Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study

HBSC: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children

NLSY: The National Longitudinal Surveys

ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999

ALSPAC: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

NLSCM: National Longitudinal Surveys Child-Mother files

QLSCD: Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec

SII: Slope Index of Inequalities (linear regression coefficient and CI presented) [93]

Β: Beta Coefficient

HR: Hazard Ratio

OR: Odds Ratio

RR: Relative Risk

CI: Confidence Interval

SE: Standard Error

1 D Duration (1 = birth cohort or starting in youth)

R Recruitment (1 = population-based or school-based representing regional population at certain age)

E Explanatory variables, (1 = risk factor assessment for CSES directly in parents, not retrospectively in adults)

O Outcome (1 = measured BMI and age-specific cut off scores for obesity/overweight criteria (extra-cohortal definition))

C Controlling (1 = adult SES, birth weight or baseline BMI)

²overweight/obesity criteria for adults: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²/≥ 30 kg/m²;

³ overweight/obesity criteria: IOTF age specific BMI cut points

4overweight BMI cut points according to Cole (BMJ, 2000)

5 age-specific 85/95th percentile (CDC growth charts)

6 age-specific 85/95th percentile, (NHANES)

7 partly self-reported height, weight with controlling for method of data collection

a I+II skilled nonmanual; III unskilled nonmanual; skilled manual IV+V semi- unskilled manual

b I+II professional; III skilled workers IV unskilled workers; V farmers. UK Regristrar General's Standard Occupational Classification

c elementary; secondary; post-secondary

d No high-school; high school; college; university degree

e No high-school; high school; some college; college graduate, professional degree

f less than high school; high school only; college or professional

g less than high-school; some college; college

h < O-level, O-level, A-level, >A-level

m = men; w = women

** p < 0.01/* p < 0.05

Tamayo et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:525   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-525

Open Data