Table 2

Overview of four-step qualitative analytic process


Analytic methods

Analytic products


Step 1

Qualitative data reduction

Review audiotaped interviews and summarize key findings by item, separately for each cognitive interview respondent

Interpret interview results and document evidence of problems or issues in each interview

Step 2

Problem identification and classification

Identify problems: For each interview, identify items with evident problems or issues

Determine items with issues to be coded, separately for each pretest interview

Classify general types of problems or issues observed for each item in each interview

Characterize general types of problems evident within individual interviews

Step 3

Item-level synthesis

Catalog problems and issues observed across interviews

Determine items with consistent problems or issues and document types of problems and issues observed consistently, by item

Step 4

Residence and topic area comparisons

Compare counts of problem items and problem types by residence time and question topic area

Assess whether types of problems observed differed depending on residence time or question topic

Berrigan et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:481   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-481

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