Table 1

The pooled effect sizes (Hedges g) and 95% CI when comparing data before and after the activity in the natural environment.

Outcome

Effect size

95% CI

No. studies

Summary


Attention

0.23

(-0.30, 0.76)

3

No effect

Energy

0.76

(0.30, 1.22)

5

Improved

Anxiety

0.52

(0.25, 0.79)

6

Improved

Tranquillity

0.07

(-0.42, 0.55)

7

No effect*

Anger

0.35

(0.07, 0.64)

6

Improved

Fatigue

0.76

(0.41, 1.11)

4

Improved

Sadness

0.66

(0.16, 1.16)

3

Improved

Systolic BP

0.02

(-0.42, 0.38)

4

No effect

Diastolic BP

0.32

(-0.18, 0.82)

3

No effect

Cortisol

0.57

(-0.43, 1.57)

4

No effect*


The sign of the effect size reflects the benefit on health (positive effects indicate greater attention, energy and tranquillity but lower values for the other outcomes). 'Summary' describes the interpretation of the impact on health/well-being and an asterisk is used to denote a significant heterogeneity test (p < 0.05) for a particular group, indicating variation among studies. Number of studies reflects the number of studies for which there was data available to calculate this effect size (i.e with pretest data).

Bowler et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:456   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-456

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