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Open Access Research article

The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

María Teresa Alzamora123*, Rosa Forés13, José Miguel Baena-Díez4, Guillem Pera3, Pere Toran3, Marta Sorribes5, Marisa Vicheto1, María Dolores Reina6, Amparo Sancho7, Carlos Albaladejo8, Judith Llussà9 and the PERART/ARTPER study group

Author Affiliations

1 Primary Healthcare Centre Riu Nord-Riu Sud, Institut Català de la Salut, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain

2 Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona Spain

3 Research Unit Metropolitana Nord, ICS-IDIAP Jordi Gol. Mataró, Spain

4 Primary Healthcare Centre La Marina, Institut Català de la Salut, Barcelona, Spain

5 Primary Healthcare Centre Numància, Institut Català de la Salut, Barcelona, Spain

6 Primary Healthcare Centre Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Institut Català de la Salut, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain

7 Primary Healthcare Centre Can Mariné, Institut Català de la Salut, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain

8 Primary Healthcare Centre Llefià, Institut Català de la Salut Badalona, Badalona, Spain

9 Primary Healthcare Centre Sant Roc, Institut Català de la Salut, Badalona, Spain

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BMC Public Health 2010, 10:38  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-38

Published: 27 January 2010

Abstract

Background

The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population.

Methods

We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values < 0.9 were considered as peripheral arterial disease.

Results

The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4), (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2), females 5.3% (4.6-6.0); p < 0.001).

Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44); inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68) for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16) for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58) for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58) for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65); diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83); previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15); hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18); hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19). Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87) and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94) were found as protector factors.

Conclusions

The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.