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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Maxillofacial injuries associated with intimate partner violence in women

Norkhafizah Saddki1*, Adlin A Suhaimi1 and Razak Daud2

  • * Corresponding author: Norkhafizah Saddki

  • † Equal contributors

Author Affiliations

1 School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

2 Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 15586 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

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BMC Public Health 2010, 10:268  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-268

Published: 23 May 2010



The facial region has been the most common site of injury following violent episodes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of maxillofacial injuries associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) in women treated at a single facility in Malaysia.


A retrospective review of 242 hospital records of female IPV victims who were seen at the One-Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) in Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan over a two-year period (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006) was performed. A structured form was used for data collection. Information regarding the anatomical sites of injuries, types of injuries, and mechanisms of assault were obtained.


Most victims were married (85.1%), were injured by the husband (83.5%), and had at least one previous IPV episode (85.5%). Injury to the maxillofacial region was the most common (50.4%), followed by injury to the limbs (47.9%). In 122 cases of maxillofacial injuries, the middle of the face was most frequently affected (60.6%), either alone or in combination with the upper or lower third of the face. Injury to soft tissues (contusions, abrasions and lacerations) was the most common (87.7%).


This study indicates there is a high prevalence of maxillofacial injuries associated with IPV among women treated at the OSCC in Kelantan, Malaysia.