Table 3

Longitudinal associations between values and regular substance-use behaviour at age 18/19, unadjusted and mutually adjusted odds-ratios

Regular smoker

Frequent (most days) drinker

Weekly drug-use




Predictors

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Unadjusted

Adjusted


    Traditional

(Trad) Sex-Roles

1.19 (1.04-1.37)

1.19 (0.98-1.46)

1.30 (1.02-1.65)

1.03 (0.73-1.44)

1.62 (1.33-1.99)

1.10 (0.88-1.38)

(Pro) Work Ethic

1.24 (1.10-1.41)

1.21 (1.02-1.45)

1.02 (0.78-1.32)

0.99 (0.77-1.27)

1.11 (0.95-1.31)

1.00 (0.85-1.18)

(Pro) Citizenship

1.04 (0.91-1.21)

1.06 (0.88-1.27)

0.98 (0.77-1.25)

0.95 (0.74-1.23)

1.11 (0.96-1.29)

1.03 (0.88-1.21)

    Humanitarian

(Pro) Equity

1.12 (0.96-1.30)

0.95 (0.77-1.18)

1.05 (0.74-1.48)

1.10 (0.80-1.52)

1.10 (0.92-1.31)

1.07 (0.88-1.31)

    Self-direction

(Anti) Authority

1.21 (1.05-1.39)

0.92 (0.76-1.11)

1.20 (0.89-1.61)

1.05 (0.78-1.42)

1.52 (1.29-1.79)

1.33 (1.10-1.61)

(Anti-trad) Politics

1.38 (1.21-1.59)

1.15 (0.96-1.38)

0.85 (0.66-1.08)

0.83 (0.64-1.09)

1.15 (1.00-1.33)

0.97 (0.84-1.12)

    Self-enhancement

(Pro) Materialism

1.02 (0.86-1.20)

1.01 (0.80-1.29)

1.22 (0.97-1.54)

1.13 (0.89-1.44)

1.01 (0.84-1.22)

0.92 (0.74-1.13)

(Pro) Individualism

0.99 (0.84-1.17)

1.14 (0.93-1.41)

1.14 (0.87-1.51)

1.13 (0.85-1.49)

0.99 (0.84-1.18)

1.06 (0.88-1.27)


Prior subst-use *

None

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Regular prior- use

17.14 (11.88-24.71)

16.76 (11.63-24.16)

3.27 (1.03-10.38)

2.38 (0.70-8.04)

7.96 (5.51-11.48)

5.52 (3.60-8.48)

    Parental Smoking

No

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

No parent figure

3.46 (1.25-9.57)

1.74 (0.20-14.91)

1.62 (0.44-5.92)

0.52 (0.03-7.74)

Yes

1.68 (1.19-2.39)

1.23 (0.75-2.03)

0.67 (0.34-1.32)

0.79 (0.37-1.72)

1.32 (0.91-1.92)

1.20 (0.72-2.00)


Risk taking

Very true

3.38 (2.29-5.01)

1.37 (0.80-2.33)

3.39 (1.66-6.93)

2.39 (1.06-5.38)

7.28 (3.92-13.50)

3.31 (1.65-6.62)

True

2.08 (1.56-2.77)

1.29 (0.90-1.86)

1.79 (1.02-3.12)

1.66 (0.91-3.01)

3.20 (2.01-5.07)

2.09 (1.26-3.46)

Untrue/v untrue

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00


Sex

Female

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Male

0.98 (0.76-1.28)

0.93 (0.61-1.43)

2.54 (1.46-4.41)

2.04 (1.04-4.00)

3.54 (2.26-5.54)

2.97 (1.86-4.75)

Area deprivation

1.08 (1.00-1.17)

1.03 (0.92-1.16)

0.98 (0.81-1.18)

1.11 (0.89-1.38)

1.09 (0.97-1.21)

1.08 (0.95-1.22)

Social Class

Manual

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Non-manual

0.63 (0.47-0.85)

0.77 (0.48-1.21)

2.04 (1.12-3.70)

2.20 (1.15-4.21)

0.79 (0.54-1.13)

0.98 (0.66-1.46)

Family structure

2-parent

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1-parent

1.75 (1.21-2.52)

1.10 (0.68-1.78)

0.82 (0.40-1.68)

0.80 (0.36-1.78)

1.12 (0.78-1.62)

0.81 (0.49-1.35)

reconstituted

2.26 (1.55-3.30)

1.78 (1.15-2.78)

0.58 (0.21-1.60)

0.55 (0.16-1.89)

1.27 (0.73-2.20)

1.09 (0.58-2.08)

other

2.95 (1.43-6.09)

1.92 (0.37-9.89)

2.05 (0.79-5.31)

1.95 (0.27-14.16)

Low parental care

1.16 (1.06-1.26)

1.05 (0.92-1.19)

1.15 (1.02-1.29)

1.11 (0.97-1.28)

1.17 (1.07-1.27)

1.04 (0.92-1.16)

Parental control

1.01 (0.90-1.13)

0.98 (0.85-1.13)

0.98 (0.79-1.20)

0.93 (0.76-1.15)

1.01 (0.89-1.15)

0.93 (0.80-1.07)

Religion

Protestant

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Catholic

0.88 (0.65-1.20)

1.03 (0.72-1.48)

1.07 (0.63-1.79)

1.10 (0.64-1.87)

0.73 (0.52-1.03)

0.67 (0.46-0.97)

Muslim/Islam

0.93 (0.41-2.14)

1.54 (0.66-3.62)

0.00 (none) ‡

0.00 (none) ‡

0.52 (0.15-1.74)

0.51 (0.14-1.86)

Other

0.64 (0.35-1.20)

0.92 (0.41-2.08)

1.01 (0.33-3.03)

0.80 (0.26-2.49)

0.68 (0.33-1.39)

0.67 (0.29-1.57)

None or Atheist

1.05 (0.65-1.71)

1.24 (0.67-2.30)

1.68 (0.90-3.12)

1.51 (0.83-2.74)

0.77 (0.49-1.21)

0.61 (0.39-0.97)


Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold.

* = Prior use refers to use of the same substance as the outcome, e.g. for the smoking at age 18/19 outcome this means smoking at age 15.

† = Due to low cell frequencies this category been collapsed into another (adjacent) grouping.

‡ = No Muslim participant reported drinking alcohol; accordingly the final model excluded Muslim participants.

Young and West BMC Public Health 2010 10:165   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-165

Open Data