Table 2

Cross-sectional associations between values and regular substance-use at age 15, unadjusted and mutually adjusted odds-ratios.

Regular smoker

Frequent (most days) drinker

Weekly drug-use




Predictors

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Unadjusted

Adjusted


    Traditional

(Trad) Sex-Roles

1.09 (0.96-1.23)

1.22 (1.05-1.41)

1.60 (1.24-2.07)

1.40 (1.09-1.81)

1.67 (1.45-1.92)

1.53 (1.30-1.81)

(Pro) Work Ethic

1.17 (1.03-1.32)

1.18 (1.04-1.33)

1.13 (0.84-1.51)

1.10 (0.85-1.44)

1.11 (0.96-1.28)

1.06 (0.91-1.24)

(Pro) Citizenship

1.04 (0.93-1.16)

1.06 (0.94-1.20)

1.09 (0.83-1.44)

1.14 (0.88-1.48)

1.03 (0.89-1.19)

1.01 (0.87-1.18)

    Humanitarian

(Pro) Equity

1.27 (1.15-1.42)

1.25 (1.12-1.39)

0.97 (0.77-1.21)

0.99 (0.78-1.24)

1.13 (0.97-1.30)

1.09 (0.93-1.27)

    Self-direction

(Anti) Authority

1.53 (1.35-1.74)

1.33 (1.17-1.51)

1.67 (1.31-2.13)

1.33 (0.98-1.79)

1.64 (1.40-1.91)

1.45 (1.21-1.75)

(Anti-trad) Politics

1.49 (1.35-1.64)

1.39 (1.23-1.57)

1.41 (1.08-1.83)

1.38 (1.02-1.77)

1.48 (1.31-1.67)

1.32 (1.17-1.49)

    Self-enhancement

(Pro) Materialism

0.99 (0.88-1.11)

0.96 (0.85-1.09)

1.08 (0.78-1.48)

0.99 (0.72-1.36)

1.11 (0.94-1.31)

1.04 (0.87-1.23)

(Pro) Individualism

0.83 (0.72-0.94)

0.84 (0.73-0.96)

0.88 (0.66-1.17)

0.86 (0.64-1.14)

0.77 (0.65-0.91)

0.78 (0.66-0.92)


Parental Smoking

No

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

No parent figure

2.20 (0.95-5.10)

1.27 (0.35-4.64)

5.78 (1.86-17.93)

2.24 (0.19-27.21)

3.36 (1.63-6.94)

2.03 (0.55-7.56)

Yes

1.73 (1.40-2.15)

1.36 (1.04-1.76)

0.82 (0.44-1.53)

0.91 (0.45-1.87)

1.64 (1.25-2.15)

1.40 (1.00-1.96)


Risk taking

Very true

5.25 (3.75-7.36)

4.25 (2.89-6.26)

10.01 (4.95-20.23)

4.26 (1.84-9.85)

10.98 (6.66-18.11)

5.94 (3.52-10.03)

True

2.74 (2.16-3.48)

2.33 (1.79-3.04)

2.95 (1.27-6.86)

1.87 (0.74-4.69)

4.12 (2.83-6.00)

2.81 (1.90-4.16)

Untrue/v untrue

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00


Sex

Female

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Male

0.73 (0.58-0.93)

0.50 (0.37-0.66)

2.84 (1.56-5.14)

1.82 (0.97-3.40)

1.90 (1.45-2.49)

1.10 (0.80-1.52)

Area deprivation

1.02 (0.96-1.10)

0.93 (0.86-1.00)

0.88 (0.78-0.99)

0.85 (0.75-0.96)

1.09 (1.01-1.19)

1.02 (0.93-1.13)

Social Class

Manual

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Non-manual

0.72 (0.56-0.93)

0.86 (0.67-1.09)

1.02 (0.67-1.54)

1.05 (0.66-1.67)

0.65 (0.48-0.88)

0.84 (0.57-1.23)

Family structure

2-parent

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1-parent

2.19 (1.65-2.91)

1.78 (1.29-2.45)

0.91 (0.49-1.69)

0.79 (0.37-1.67)

1.88 (1.42-2.49)

1.41 (1.03-1.93)

reconstituted

2.07 (1.47-2.93)

1.71 (1.18-2.50)

1.49 (0.72-3.05)

1.42 (0.64-3.16)

1.86 (1.24-2.78)

1.60 (1.07-2.40)

other

1.95 (1.04-3.66)

1.19 (0.46-3.05)

5.65 (2.17-14.71)

3.34 (0.44-25.27)

2.88 (1.42-5.82)

1.46 (0.49-4.36)

Low parental care

1.24 (1.15-1.33)

1.11 (1.04-1.19)

1.34 (1.17-1.53)

1.19 (1.00-1.40)

1.22 (1.16-1.29)

1.06 (0.98-1.15)

Parental control

1.01 (0.91-1.11)

0.96 (0.86-1.08)

1.11 (0.91-1.36)

1.03 (0.83-1.28)

1.13 (0.99-1.28)

1.07 (0.95-1.21)

Religion

Protestant

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Catholic

0.75 (0.56-0.99)

0.76 (0.55-1.04)

1.42 (0.68-2.95)

1.67 (0.80-3.46)

1.21 (0.80-1.81)

1.24 (0.81-1.90)

Muslim/Islam

0.47 (0.15-1.42)

0.62 (0.18-2.19)

0.00 (none) †

0.00 (none) †

0.35 (0.07-1.69)

0.32 (0.06-1.68)

Other

0.59 (0.35-1.00)

0.79 (0.48-1.29)

1.20 (0.34-4.26)

1.18 (0.31-4.44)

1.01 (0.54-1.91)

1.40 (0.68-2.87)

None or atheist

0.92 (0.63-1.33)

0.76 (0.52-1.12)

2.23 (0.89-5.55)

1.97 (0.76-5.11)

1.16 (0.76-1.78)

1.00 (0.65-1.55)


Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold.

† = No Muslim participant reported drinking alcohol; accordingly the final model excluded Muslim participants.

Young and West BMC Public Health 2010 10:165   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-165

Open Data