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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

Jérôme Endrass1, Frank Urbaniok1, Lea C Hammermeister1, Christian Benz2, Thomas Elbert3, Arja Laubacher1 and Astrid Rossegger1*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Justice, Psychiatric/Psychological Service, Canton of Zurich, Feldstrasse 42, 8004 Zurich, Switzerland

2 Praxis Dr. Benz, Mühlebachstrasse 42, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland

3 University of Constance, 78457 Constance, Germany

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Citation and License

BMC Psychiatry 2009, 9:43  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-9-43

Published: 14 July 2009



There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design.


The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008.


4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense.


Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.