Table 1

Characteristics of the studies.

Study

N° Subjects

N° Controls

Mean Age

% Women

Country

Type of training

Type of Subjects

Instrument

Individual/group

Homework

Duration

Session

Effect size BT

Effect size WT


* Kanji, White,& Ernst [16]

30

29

64,5

36,7

UK

Autogenic Training

Patients undergoing coronary angioplasty

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

2 Months

ND

0,470

0,513

* Tomioka & Kubo [50]

21

12

43,3

72,7

Japan

Autogenic Training

Psychosomatic patients

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

8 Weeks

8

0,318

0,399

* Pawlow, O'Neil & Malcolm [21]

10

10

38

90

USA

Progressive Relaxation

Night Eaters

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

1 Day

1

1,358

1,305

* Yung, Fung, Chan, & Lau [24]

17

30

37

100

Hong Kong

Stretch Release Relaxation Group;

Nurses

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

4 Weeks

4

0,397

0,210

* Yung, Fung, Chan, & Lau [24]

18

Cognitive Relaxation

4 Weeks

4

0,623

0,331

*Roykulcharoen & Good [23]

51

51

42

82,3

Thailand

Systematic Relaxation

Patients underwent abdominal surgery

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

No

1 Day

1

0,176

0,371

* McComb & Clopton [51]

26

24

19

100

USA

Autogenic Training and Visualization

Pazients affected by bulimia nervosa

Stai – State anxiety

Group

No

8 Weeks

8

0,030

0,262

* Deckro et al. [52]

46

44

24

60,2

Relaxation response and other cognitive-behavioral techniques

Students

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

6 Weeks

6

0,700

0,575

* Pawlow & Jones [20]

44

15

23,2

47,8

USA

Progressive Relaxation

Students

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

No

1 Day

1

1,389

1,054

* Knowlton & Larkin [53]

12

12

20,8

100

USA

Progressive Relaxation, recommended voice

"Very anxious" students

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

No

1 Day

1

0,160

0,731

* Knowlton & Larkin [53]

12

Progressive Relaxation, conversational voice

1 Day

1

0,537

1,491

* Knowlton & Larkin [53]

12

Systematic Relaxation

1 Day

1

0,497

0,929

Wachholtz & Pargament [54]

22

19,40

63,6

USA

Unspecified Relaxation

Students

Stai – Trait anxiety

Individual

Yes

2 Weeks

2

0,188

Wachholtz & Pargament [54]

25

18,90

76

Spiritual Meditation

2 Weeks

2

0,679

Wachholtz & Pargament [54]

21

19,10

61,9

Secular Meditation

2 Weeks

2

0,211

* Bagheri-Nesami, Mohseni-Bandpei, & Azar [55]

26

24

48

96

Iran

Benson's Technique

Rheumatoid arthritis patients

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

Yes

8 Weeks

1

0,950

1,200

* Rasid &Parish [56]

18

17

18

50

USA

Behavioral Relaxation

High school students

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

2 Weeks

4

0,900

* Rasid &Parish [56]

20

18

55

Progressive Relaxation

Stai – State anxiety

Group

Yes

2 Weeks

4

0,900

Wright, Courtney, & Crowther [57]

18

40

ND

Irland

Autogenic Training

Patients with cancer

Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale – HADS;

Group

Yes

10 Weeks

10

1,350

* Boyce, Talley, Balaam, Koloski, & Truman [58]

19

25

42,3

81

Australia

Progressive Relaxation

Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale – HADS;

Individual

Yes

4 Weeks

4

0,096

0,411

* Norton, Holm, & McSherry [59]

17

16

20,3

70

USA

Progressive Relaxation

Students

State-Trait Personality Inventory

Individual

Yes

2 Weeks

2

0,265

1,138

Carlbring, Ekselius, & Andersson [60]

11

37,4

63

Sweden

Applied relaxation

Pazients with panic

Beck Anxiety Inventory

Individual

Yes

7 Months

9

0,950

Muhlberger, Herrmann, Wiedemann, Ellgring [61]

15

42,2

86,7

Germany

Progressive Relaxation after the exposure of Virtual Reality

Flight phobics

Anxiety Expectancy Scale

Individual

No

1 Weeks

4

0,072

Viens, De Koninck, Mercier, St-Onge, & Lorrain [62]

10

36,1

80

Canada

Progressive Relaxation, management of anxiety

Subjects with sleep disorders

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

Yes

9 Weeks

1

0,865

* Davidson et al [63]

25

16

36

76

USA

Meditation

Employers

Stai – Trait anxiety

Group

Yes

8 Weeks

8

0,747

0,545

* Lukins, Davan, & Drummond [64]

43

52

47

50,8

Australia

Imaginative Relaxation

Patients undergoing magnetic resonance

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

No

1 Day

1

0,526

0,174

* Lukins, Davan, & Drummond [64]

44

Imaginative Relaxation with re-calling during MRI

1 Day

2

0,384

0,050

* Cheung, Molassiotis, & Chang [17]

8

10

48,8

37,5

Hong Kong

Progressive Relaxation

Patients after stoma surgery

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

Yes

1 Day

2

0,479

Kominars [65]

76

nd

nd

USA

Progressive Relaxation and Visualization

Patients alchol addicted

Stai – State anxiety

Group

nd

3 Weeks

6

1,010

Arntz [31]

20

35,9

60

Netherland

Applied relaxation

Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Stai – Trait anxiety

Individual

Yes

12 Weeks

12

0,369

Engel & Andersen [66]

8

48,5

37,5

Denmark

Guided Relaxation and Meditative Streching

Patients with chronic toxic encephalopathy

Stai – State anxiety

Group

No

8 Weeks

8

0,549

* Jablon, Naliboff, Gilmore, & Rosenthal [67]

10

10

58,9

50

USA

Progressive Relaxation and EMG biofeedback

Patients with type II diabetes

Stai – State anxiety

Individual

Yes

4 Weeks

4

0,254

0,412

* Clarl et al. [68]

19

20

31,95

44

UK

Applied relaxation

Patients with social phobia

Beck Anxiety Inventory

Individual

Yes

14 Weeks

14

0,949

1,029

* Lowe et al. [69]

20

20

63,1

20

Germany

Progressive Relaxation

Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

Group

No

1 Week

2

0,189

-0,061


* = Studies with control group

Manzoni et al. BMC Psychiatry 2008 8:41   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-41

Open Data