Table 4

Mean personality traits for never, non-current, and current cocaine/heroin users.

NEO-PI-R scales

Never-user (n = 887)

Former user (n = 178)

Current user (n = 29)

F

Partial η2


Neuroticism

50.3 (.32)a

49.7 (.73)a

57.6 (1.77)b

8.8**

.016

Extraversion

48.5 (.28)

50.0 (.63)

50.7 (1.54)

2.7

.005

Openness

46.1 (.28)

46.7 (.63)

45.1 (1.54)

0.7

.001

Agreeableness

50.8 (.31)

49.9 (.69)

49.2 (1.69)

1.1

.002

Conscientiousness

49.2 (.32)a

46.8 (.73)b

40.3 (1.77)c

14.7**

.027

N1: Anxiety

51.0 (.29)a

49.5 (.66)b

54.9 (1.62)c

5.6**

.010

N2: Angry Hostility

50.4 (.31)a

51.4 (.71)a

57.9 (1.73)b

9.1**

.017

N3: Depression

50.8 (.36)a

51.0 (.82)a

58.5 (1.99)b

7.2**

.013

N4: Self-consciousness

49.6 (.32)a

48.5 (.74)a

54.4 (1.80)b

4.9**

.009

N5: Impulsiveness

49.0 (.30)a

50.0 (.69)a

54.0 (1.68)b

4.7**

.009

N6: Vulnerability

50.5 (.36)a

50.2 (.82)a

61.3 (2.01)b

14.4**

.027

E1: Warmth

48.1 (.32)

48.7 (.74)

49.3 (1.80)

0.4

.001

E2: Gregariousness

50.3 (.31)

51.2 (.71)

49.4 (1.74)

0.9

.002

E3: Assertiveness

49.6 (.32)

50.0 (.73)

47.3 (1.78)

1.0

.002

E4: Activity

47.3 (.30)

48.5 (.69)

46.2 (1.69)

1.7

.003

E5: Excitement-Seeking

47.2 (.29)a

50.0 (.66)b

51.0 (1.62)b

8.7**

.016

E6: Positive Emotions

48.4 (.32)

48.0 (.73)

45.7 (1.79)

1.2

.002

O1: Fantasy

48.1 (.28)

48.7 (.63)

48.9 (1.53)

0.5

.001

O2: Aesthetics

48.9 (.30)

49.6 (.69)

50.6 (1.68)

0.8

.002

O3: Feelings

47.0 (.29)

47.3 (.66)

48.7 (1.61)

0.5

.001

O4: Actions

45.5 (.31)a

47.5 (.71)b

42.3 (1.74)a

5.4**

.010

O5: Ideas

47.2 (.31)

46.8 (.69)

47.6 (1.69)

0.2

.000

O6: Values

44.7 (.28)a

46.9 (.64)b

45.3 (1.55)ab

4.8**

.009

A1: Trust

47.1 (.33)a

45.4 (.74)b

42.6 (1.82)b

4.5*

.008

A2: Straightforwardness

50.9 (.31)a

50.2 (.70)a

46.5 (1.72)b

3.3*

.006

A3: Altruism

50.6 (.32)

50.7 (.73)

52.1 (1.79)

0.4

.001

A4: Compliance

49.4 (.34)a

49.0 (.78)

45.3 (1.91)

2.3

.004

A5: Modesty

51.2 (.32)

51.2 (.72)

52.2 (1.75)

0.2

.000

A6: Tender-mindedness

52.2 (.31)

52.5 (.71)

52.1 (1.72)

0.1

.000

C1: Competence

49.7 (.35)a

47.4 (.79)b

37.0 (1.92)c

22.3**

.041

C2: Order

47.2 (.29)

47.1 (.67)

44.3 (1.63)

1.5

.003

C3: Dutifulness

48.3 (.32)a

46.4 (.73)b

42.5 (1.77)c

7.2**

.014

C4: Achievement Striving

48.5 (.34)a

46.7 (.77)b

38.1 (1.87)c

15.9**

.029

C5: Self-Discipline

48.1 (.34)a

46.1 (.78)b

39.0 (1.91)c

12.6**

.023

C6: Deliberation

52.7 (.33)a

51.0 (.75)a

42.1 (1.84)b

16.6**

.031


Note. Estimated marginal means (Standard Errors), statistical tests, and effect sizes computed after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity (black, white), and education (n = 1062).

Means with different superscripts differ significantly at p < .05.

* p < .05; ** p < .01

Terracciano et al. BMC Psychiatry 2008 8:22   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-22

Open Data