Table 1

Characteristics of normal and delayed sleep onset phenotypes in depressed young people (N = 305)
Delayed n =56 Normal n =249
Frequency % Frequency % OR (95% CI) p
Gender .19
   Males 18 32% 59 24% 1.5 (0.8 - 2.9)
   Females 38 68% 190 76%
Employment .98
   Not in employment 37 66% 164 66% 1.0 (0.1 - 1.8)
   In employment 19 34% 85 34%
Education .01
   Not in education 27 48% 77 31% 2.1 (1.2 - 3.8)
   In education 29 52% 172 69%
High Substance Risk
   Tobacco 39 71% 113 45% 2.9 (1.6 - 5.5) .001
   Alcohol 18 33% 39 16% 2.6 (1.4 - 5.1) .003
   Cannabis 24 43% 69 28% 2.0 (1.1 - 3.6) .03
Sleep quality
   Poor sleep quality 42 75% 171 69% 1.4 (0.7 - 2.7) .35
   Good sleep quality 14 25% 78 31%
Fatigue
   Persistent fatigue 9 16% 50 20% 1.3 (0.6 - 2.9) .49
   Non-persistent fatigue 47 84% 199 80%
SD SD MD (95% CI)
   Age 18.5 2.3 18.3 3.1 0.2 (-0.5 - 0.9) .60
   Hours spent in bed 6.7 2.7 8.8 2.1 -2.0 (-2.8--1.3) .000
   Self-reported sleep duration (hrs) 5.9 2.3 6.9 2.1 -1.0 (-1.6--0.4) .002
   Calculated sleep duration (hrs) 5.8 2.7 7.8 2.3 -2.0 (-2.8--1.2) .000
   Minutes taken to fall asleep 85.2 68.0 68.9 56.9 16.3 (-0.9 - 33.6) .06
   Fun-seeking 8.1 2.8 9.0 2.7 -0.9 (-1.7 - -0.1) .03
   Drive 10.2 3.2 10.3 2.7 -0.1 (-0.9 - 0.7) .80
   Reward Responsiveness 9.8 3.0 9.6 2.8 0.2 (-0.6 - 1.0) .65
   Inhibition 12.0 4.8 11.4 3.8 0.7 (-0.5 - 1.8) .24
   Rumination 33.3 6.5 32.1 5.5 1.2 (-0.4 - 2.9) .15
   Depression 15.3 3.6 14.9 3.2 0.4 (-0.6 - 1.3) .42
   Anxiety 13.9 5.2 13.0 5.0 0.9 (-0.6 - 2.3) .24
   Mania 5.1 5.7 4.6 5.2 0.5 (-1.0 - 2.1) .50
   Psychological Distress 36.2 7.7 34.7 7.2 1.5 (-0.6 - 3.6) .16
   Suicidal Ideation 9.1 9.2 9.7 8.8 -0.6 (-3.2 - 2.0) .64
   SOFAS score 58.7 10.0 62.3 10.0 -3.6 (-6.5 - -0.7) .02
   WHODAS score 19.9 9.6 17.6 8.7 2.2 (-0.4 - 4.9) .09
   Quality of life 2.5 1.1 2.6 .9 -0.1 (-0.4 - 0.1) .31

Bold = adjusted alpha level ofp < .004. SOFAS: Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, WHODAS: World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule.

Glozier et al.

Glozier et al. BMC Psychiatry 2014 14:33   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-33

Open Data