Open Access Study protocol

Study protocol: the JEU cohort study – transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers

Gaëlle Challet-Bouju12*, Jean-Benoit Hardouin23, Jean-Luc Vénisse12, Lucia Romo456, Marc Valleur7, David Magalon8, Mélina Fatséas9, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet10, Mohamed-Ali Gorsane1112 and Marie Grall-Bronnec12

Author Affiliations

1 Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders”, Department of Addictology and Psychiatry, University Hospital of Nantes, 85 rue de Saint Jacques, Nantes Cedex 1, 44093, France

2 EA 4275 SPHERE “bioStatistics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Human sciEnces Research tEam”, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nantes, Paris, France

3 Unit of Methodology and Biostatistics, University Hospital of Nantes, Paris, France

4 EA 4430 CLIPSYD « CLInique PSYchanalyse Développement », University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Paris, France

5 Louis Mourier Hospital of Colombes, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France

6 Present address: Psychotherapies Unit, Sainte-Anne Hospital – Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Paris, France

7 Marmottan Medical Center, GPS Perray-Vaucluse, Paris, France

8 Department of Adult Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital of Marseille, Paris, France

9 Psychiatry Laboratory, Sanpsy CNRS USR 3413, University of Bordeaux and Charles Perrens Hospital, Bordeaux, France

10 Psychiatry Department, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Paris, France

11 Psychiatry and Addictology Department, Paul Brousse University Hospital of Villejuif, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France

12 Present address: Addictology Department, University Hospital Group Henri Mondor of Creteil, Paris, France

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BMC Psychiatry 2014, 14:226  doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0226-7

Published: 20 August 2014



There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolution of a gambling problem with intermediate care intervention, relapses or care recourse.


The present study was designed to overcome the limitations of previous cohort study on PG. Indeed, this longitudinal case–control cohort is the first which plans to recruit enough participants from different initial gambling severity levels to observe these rare changes. In particular, we plan to recruit three groups of gamblers: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment.

Recruitment takes place in various gambling places, through the press and in care centers.

Cohort participants are gamblers of both sexes who reported gambling on at least one occasion in the previous year and who were aged between 18 and 65. They were assessed through a structured clinical interview and self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and then once a year for five years. Data collection comprises sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits (including gambling trajectory), the PG section of the DSM-IV, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey – 23, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale, somatic comorbidities (especially current treatment and Parkinson disease) and the Temperament and Character Inventory – 125.


The JEU cohort study is the first study which proposes to identify the predictive factors of key state changes in gambling practice. This is the first case–control cohort on gambling which mixes non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment in almost equal proportions. This work may help providing a fresh perspective on the etiology of pathological gambling, which may provide support for future research, care and preventive actions.

Trial Registration

( NCT01207674 webcite.

Gambling; State changes; Cohort; Problem gambling; Recourse to treatment; Predictive factors