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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Vitamin D status in chronic dialysis patients with depression: a prospective study

Jisheng Zhang1*, Ping Zhang2, Xiaoying Ni3, Beiyan Bao4, Congyang Huang4, Yongyao Wu1, Min Ni5, Jinfeng Duan6 and Jianghua Chen2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nephrology, Beilun Branch of the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, PR China

2 Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China

3 Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Yinzhou, College of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, PR China

4 Department of Nephrology, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, College of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, PR China

5 Department of Psychiatry, Beilun Branch of the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, PR China

6 Department of Psychiatry, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China

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BMC Psychiatry 2014, 14:125  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-125

Published: 28 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Depression is the most widely acknowledged psychological problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Depression may be associated with VD deficiency. The aims of this study are to (a) elucidate the prospective association between HsCRP, VD contents and depressive symptoms in the dialyzed population, and (b) find the effect of calcitriol supplementation on depression in dialyzed patients.

Methods

In this prospective study, 484 dialysis patients (382 hemodialysis [HD] cases and 102 peritoneal dialysis [PD] cases; aged 18–60 years) from two hospitals in southeast China were included. The depression in these patients was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). All subjects answered the BDI-I questionnaire for assessment of depression levels in summer. A cut-off value of 16 was set to include dialysis patients with depression. All patients were divided into two groups depending on the absence (Group1) or presence (Group 2) of depression. The two groups took 0.5 μg/day 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D orally for one year. BDI Scores were recalculated for all patients. Sociodemographic, clinical data, and serum VD contents were also collected.

Results

A total of 484 participants (247 men [51.0%] and 237 women [49.0%]) were surveyed. Depressive symptoms were found in 213 (44.0%) patients. The baseline serum VD level (VD2 + VD3) was 17.6 ± 7.7 nmol/L. Patients with depressive symptoms have significantly higher serum HsCRP level and significantly lower serum VD level compared with the control group. After one-year follow-up, the supplementation of 0.5 μg/day calcitriol slightly improved the microinflammatory state such as lowering mean serum HsCRP level and improving serum VD level, but not in significantly enhancing the depressive symptoms.

Conclusions

Calcitriol supplementation did not significantly enhance the depressive symptoms in our dialyzed population although patients with low levels of serum VD were more depressed. Therefore, more prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to reveal the exact cause-and-effect relationship between VD status and depressive symptoms or VD status related to some specific subtypes in dialyzed patients.

Keywords:
Depression; Vitamin D; End-stage renal disease; Dialysis; Efficacy; Prospective study