Table 5

Final multilevel models for change for each health outcome
GH Scale MCS WHODAS II Score
Estimate SE Estimate SE Estimate SE
Intercept 55.50** 2.58 32.20** 1.94 31.22** 1.73
Time in Days 0.06* 0.02 0.07** 0.01 −0.02* 0.01
Time in Days squared −0.0006* 0.0002
Gender 0.23 1.76 −1.55 0.85 −0.89 1.14
Age −0.17* 0.06 −0.04 0.03 0.08* 0.04
Bipolar Disorders 8.92* 3.24 13.62** 1.71 −13.87** 2.07
Depression 3.43 3.31 5.34* 1.94 −3.64 2.11
Migraine 7.66* 3.11 12.82** 1.64 −16.63** 2.03
Multiple Sclerosis −1.58 3.71 10.66** 1.95 −15.60** 2.40
Parkinson’s Disease 2.29 3.10 17.56** 1.63 −22.81** 2.04
Traumatic Brain Injury 18.36** 3.48 19.49** 1.89 −18.71** 2.26
Mild Disease Severity 6.96** 1.57 5.69** 0.87 −8.10** 1.05
Moderate Disease Severity 3.01* 1.33 2.96** 0.77 −3.57** 0.94
Energy and drive functions −4.73** 1.10 −2.60** 0.64
Sleep functions −2.43** 0.59
Emotional functions −3.73* 1.18 −4.33** 0.69
Sensation of pain 2.15* 0.70
Solving problems −3.48** 0.66 7.75** 1.02
Solving problems * Time in days −0.03* 0.01
Conversation 4.59** 0.83
Lifting and carrying objects −4.13* 1.17
Walking −4.54** 1.15 7.67** 0.79
Using transportation −4.06* 1.58
Washing oneself 8.28** 0.91
Acquisition of goods and services −1.99* 0.68
Informal social relationships −3.95* 1.24 5.21** 0.89
Community life −5.54** 1.22 −3.64** 0.68
Recreation and leisure −2.57** 0.63
Products or substances for personal consumption 4.72** 1.06
Products or substances for personal consumption * Time in days −0.07** 0.01
Health services, systems and policies 3.05* 1.01

*P < 0.05, **P < 0.001.

Column ‘Estimate’ contains the mean of the regression coefficients and the column ‘SE’ the standard error of those estimates.

The estimates have to be interpreted with respect to the reference values, which were male for gender, stroke for the brain disorder, and ‘high’ for disease severity. For the ICF categories the reference value is not having a problem.

While positive estimates in the GH Scale and MCS indicate better health, they indicate lower health in the WHODAS II score.

The SE has to be interpreted in such a way that the smaller the SE, the more precise is the estimation of the regression coefficients.

The parameter estimate and the standard error (SE) for each of the independent variables are reported.

Cieza et al.

Cieza et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:78   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-78

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