Unstimulated spontaneous and LPS-stimulated IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B), and TNF-α (C) production by PBMCs in PTSD patients compared to controls. The figure shows raw data, jittered horizontally to avoid overlapping points. Horizontal lines indicate means. Statistical significance for the difference in means of immune parameters was assessed by nonparametric permutation tests, using 10 000 random permutations of group labels (* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001).
Gola et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:40 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-40