Table 7

Summary of associations between depression (exposure of interest) and diet, presented by year of publication
Author, country, year Type of diet (outcome) Adjusted for confounders Results p value Summary of associations
Cross-sectional
Pagoto et al., USA, 2009 [24] Healthy Eating Age, sex, smoking −2.03 (0.60) 0.001 Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
Beydoun et al., USA, 2009 [32] Healthy Eating Age, poverty status, education, marital status, smoking White males:
(CES-D)–0.25 (0.08) <0.05 Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
(CES-D ≥16)–3.44 (1.62) NS* Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
(CES-D ≥20)–2.82 (1.99) <0.05 No association
White females:
(CES-D)–0.19 (0.07) <0.05 Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
(CES-D ≥16)–3.45 (1.26) Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
(CES-D ≥20)–3.93 (1.46) Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of healthy eating
Beydoun et al., USA, 2009 [32] Healthy Eating Age, poverty status, education, marital status, smoking African American males:
(CES-D)–0.03 (0.07) NS* No association
(CES-D ≥16)–0.08 (1.22) NS* No association
(CES-D ≥20)–0.90 (1.52) NS* No association
African American females:
(CES-D)–0.10 (0.06) <0.1 No association
(CES-D ≥16)–1.24 (1.04) NS* No association
(CES-D ≥20)–1.22 (1.20) NS* No association
Beydoun and Wang, USA, 2010 [33] Healthy Eating Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, food insecurity, education, poverty income ratio Males: −3.29 (2.12) NS* No association
Females: −2.63 (1.96) NS* No association
Castellanos et al., USA, 2011 [39] Fat intake Age, income, education, fruit/vegetable intake, time in USA −0.23 (0.14) 0.12 No association
Castellanos et al., USA, 2011 [39] Fruit and Vegetable consumption Age, income, education, fat consumption, time in USA −0.30 (0.09) <0.05 Depressive symptoms associated with reduced likelihood of fruit and vegetable consumption
Crawford et al., USA, 2011 [40] Frequency of fast food consumption Age, race, marital status, education, household income, BMI, smoking, physical activity, anti-depressant use C1: Referent S* Depressive symptoms associated with greater fast food consumption
C2: 1.54 (1.06, 2.25)

* Data not provided, S significant.

Results presented as Odds Ratio (OR) or Hazards Ratio (HR) and (95% CI), except where indicated by superscripts: beta regression coefficients (± SE), or α mean (±SE).

Quirk et al.

Quirk et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:175   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-175

Open Data