Table 6

Summary of associations between Western/unhealthy dietary intakes and depression, presented by year of publication, and author
Author, country, year Type of diet Adjusted for confounders Results (C = category, T = tertile, Q = quartile) p for trend Summary of associations
Cohort
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.28 (0.97, 1.69) 0.08
T3: 1.75 (1.25, 2.45) 0.001
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.22 (0.92, 1.62) 0.17
T3: 1.58 (1.12, 2.23) 0.009
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, use of anti-depressant drugs, cognitive functioning T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.22 (0.92, 1.62) 0.17
T3: 1.58 (1.11, 2.23) 0.01
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.44 (1.02, 2.02) 0.04
T3: 1.83 (1.20, 2.79) 0.004
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.41 (1.00, 2.00) 0.05
T3: 1.76 (1.14, 2.70) 0.01
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Processed food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, use of anti-depressant drugs, cognitive functioning T1: Referent Increased consumption of processed foods associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 1.38 (0.98, 1.95) 0.06
T3: 1.69 (1.10, 2.60) 0.02
Chatzi et al., Greece, 2011 [15] Western diet Age, education, parity, house tenure, depression during previous pregnancies, total energy intake during pregnancy (Outcome: EPDS) 0.07 No association
T1: Referent
T2: 0.96 (−0.17, 2.00)
T3: 1.32 (−0.19, 2.76)
Chatzi et al., Greece, 2011 [15] Western diet Age, education, parity, house tenure, depression during previous pregnancies, total energy intake during pregnancy (Outcome: symptoms) 0.70 No association
T1: Referent
T2: 1.10 (0.63, 1.93)
T3: 1.14 (0.58, 2.26)
Okubu et al., Japan, 2011 [23] Western diet Age, gestation, parity, smoking, change in diet in preceding month, family structure, occupation, family income, education, season, BMI, time of delivery, medical problems during pregnancy, sex and birth weight of baby Q1: Referent 0.36 No association
Q2: 0.52 (0.30, 0.93)
Q3: 0.71 (0.41, 1.20)
Q4: 0.73 (0.42, 1.24)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Fast food consumption Age, sex Q1: Referent 0.01 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with increased odds of self-reported depression
Q2: 1.00 (0.75, 1.32)
Q3: 0.98 (0.73, 1.32)
Q4: 1.04 (0.78, 1.39)
Q5: 1.45 (1.09, 1.92)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Fast food consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI Q1: Referent 0.01 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with increased odds of self-reported depression
Q2: 0.99 (0.74, 1.32)
Q3: 0.97 (0.72, 1.30)
Q4: 1.02 (0.76, 1.38)
Q5: 1.40 (1.05, 1.86)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Fast food consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, consumption of commercial baked goods Q1: Referent 0.03 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with increased odds of self-reported depression
Q2: 0.99 (0.74, 1.32)
Q3: 0.95 (0.70, 1.27)
Q4: 1.00 (0.75, 1.35)
Q5: 1.36 (1.02, 1.81)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Fast food consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, consumption of healthy food items Q1: Referent 0.02 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with increased odds of self-reported depression
Q2: 0.99 (0.74, 1.32)
Q3: 0.98 (0.73, 1.32)
Q4: 1.03 (0.76, 1.39)
Q5: 1.37 (1.02, 1.83)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Commercial baked goods consumption Age, sex Q1: Referent 0.17 No association
Q2: 1.38 (1.03, 1.85)
Q3: 1.33 (0.99, 1.79)
Q4: 1.10 (0.81, 1.49)
Q5: 1.40 (1.05, 1.87)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Commercial baked goods consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI Q1: Referent 0.18 No association
Q2: 1.44 (1.06, 1.95)
Q3: 1.40 (1.01, 1.94)
Q4: 1.15 (0.82, 1.61)
Q5: 1.43 (1.06, 1.93)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Commercial baked goods consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, consumption of fast food Q1: Referent 0.27 No association
Q2: 1.41 (1.04, 1.93)
Q3: 1.37 (0.99, 1.90)
Q4: 1.12 (0.79, 1.57)
Q5: 1.38 (1.02, 1.87)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2011 [20] Commercial baked goods consumption Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, consumption of healthy food items Q1: Referent 0.32 No association
Q2: 1.42 (1.05, 1.93)
Q3: 1.36 (0.98, 1.89)
Q4: 1.13 (0.80, 1.58)
Q5: 1.37 (1.01, 1.85)
Cross-sectional
Liu et al., China, 2007 [30] Fast food Sex, current year of College study, city, weight, smoking, alcohol T1: Referent NS*
T2: 0.89 (0.23, 3.46) <0.05 Decreased consumption of fast food associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T3: 0.40 (0.12, 1.37)
Liu et al., China, 2007 [30] Ready to eat food Sex, current year of College study, city, weight, smoking, alcohol T1: Referent NS* <0.0001 Decreased consumption of ready to eat food associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.96 (0.77, 1.18)
T3: 0.70 (0.57, 0.86)
Liu et al., China, 2007 [30] Snack food Sex, current year of College study, city, weight, smoking, alcohol * NS* Decreased consumption of snack food associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
Samieri et al., France, 2008 [25] Females: Pizza, sandwich Age, education, income, marital status Females: 0.21 (−0.11, 0.53) 0.19 No association
Samieri et al., France, 2008 [25] Biscuits and snacking Age, education, income, marital status Males: −0.06 (−0.35, 0.23) 0.70 No association
Females: 0.13 (−0.07, 0.33) 0.19 No association
Samieri et al.,France, 2008 [25] Females: Charcuterie, starchy foodsψ Age, education, income, marital status Females: −0.15 (−0.32, 0.02) 0.07 No association
Jeffery et al., USA, 2009 [19] High calorie sweet diet BMI, energy intake 0.012 (*) α <0.01 Decreased consumption of high calorie sweet foods associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
Jeffery et al., USA, 2009 [19] High calorie non-sweet diet BMI, energy intake −0.018 (*) α <0.01 Decreased consumption of high calorie non-sweet foods associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
Mikolajczyk et al., Europe, 2009 [38] Fast food Country Males: 1.85 (*) 0.02 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with greater mean depressive symptom scores for men
Females 0.34 (*) 0.57 No association
Jacka et al., Australia, 2010 [7] Western dietary pattern Age, socioeconomic status, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy intake C1: Referent NS* No association
C2: 1.52 (0.96, 2.41)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Westernized breakfast pattern Age, sex, workplace T1: Referent 0.43 No association
T2: 0.99 (0.63, 1.57)
T3: 1.21 (0.75, 1.95)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Westernized breakfast pattern Age, sex, workplace, marital status, BMI, job position, physical activity, smoking, co morbidities, total energy intake T1: Referent 0.34 No association
T2: 1.02 (0.64, 1.64)
T3: 1.27 (0.77, 2.10)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Animal food pattern Age, sex, workplace T1: Referent 0.94 No association
T2: 1.43 (0.92, 2.23)
T3: 0.99 (0.63, 1.55)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Animal food pattern Age, sex, workplace, marital status, BMI, job position, physical activity, smoking, co morbidities, total energy intake T1: Referent 0.91 No association
T2: 1.47 (0.93, 2.32)
T3: 0.97 (0.61, 1.55)
Fowles, Timmerman et al., USA, 2011 [41] Fast food frequency Matched for age, sex T −2.5 (−6.45, 0.71) <0.05 Increased consumption of fast foods associated with higher mean depressive symptom scores
Jacka et al., Norway, 2011 [8] Western dietary pattern Age, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy consumption Males:
C1: Referent
C2: 0.87 (0.68, 1.11) 0.25 No association
Females:
C1: Referent
C2; 1.25 (0.93, 1.68) 0.27 No association

Results presented as Odds Ratio (OR) or Hazards Ratio (HR) and (95% CI), except where indicated by superscripts: beta regression coefficients (± SE), or α mean (±SE).

* Data not provided. ψ The analysis undertaken for male participants by Samieri et al. [25] was based on a food pattern of meat consumption and thus ineligible for inclusion.

Quirk et al.

Quirk et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:175   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-175

Open Data