Table 5

Summary of associations between a healthy dietary pattern and depression, presented by year of publication
Author, country, year Type of diet Adjusted for confounders Results (T = tertile, Q = quartile, C = category) p for trend Summary of associations
Cohort
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.62 (0.48, 0.79) 0.0002
T3: 0.64 (0.49, 0.83) 0.001
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.68 (0.52, 0.89) 0.004
T3: 0.74 (0.56, 0.98) 0.03
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, use of anti-depressant drugs, cognitive functioning T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.71 (0.54, 0.92) 0.01
T3: 0.74 (0.56, 0.99) 0.04
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.63 (0.46, 0.87) 0.005
T3: 0.66 (0.47, 0.92) 0.01
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms (non-linear)
T2: 0.70 (0.50, 0.96) 0.03
T3: 0.74 (0.52, 1.04) 0.08
Akbaraly et al., UK, 2009 [21] Whole food dietary pattern Prior depression, age, gender, energy intake, marital status, employment, education, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, use of anti-depressant drugs, cognitive functioning T1: Referent Increased adherence to whole food diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms (non-linear)
T2: 0.68 (0.50, 0.94) 0.02
T3: 0.73 (0.51, 1.02) 0.07
Chatzi et al., Greece, 2011 [15] Healthy diet Age, education, parity, house tenure, depression during previous pregnancies, total energy intake during pregnancy (Outcome: EPDS) 0.02 Increased adherence to healthy diet associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
T1: Referent
T2:–1.13 (−2.25, 0.00)
T3:–1.75 (−3.22,–0.28)
Chatzi et al., Greece, 2011 [15] Healthy diet Age, education, parity, house tenure, depression during previous pregnancies, total energy intake during pregnancy (Outcome: symptoms) 0.04 Increased adherence to healthy diet associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
T1: Referent
T2: 0.52 (0.30, 0.92)
T3: 0.51 (0.25, 1.05)
Okubu et al., Japan, 2011 [23] Healthy diet Age, gestation, parity, smoking, change in diet in preceding month, family structure, occupation, family income, education, season, BMI, time of delivery, medical problems during pregnancy, sex and birth weight of baby Q1: Referent 0.72 No association
Q2: 0.82 (0.46, 1.47)
Q3: 1.49 (0.86, 2.60)
Q4: 0.94 (0.52, 1.69)
Case–control
Park et al., Korea, 2010 [37] Total diet quality Matched for age, sex Cases: 47.2 ± 0.9 <0.01 Increased adherence to healthier total diet associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
Controls: 51.3 ± 0.9 α
Park et al., Korea, 2010 [37] Meat, fish, eggs, beans < twice per day Matched for age, sex Cases: 2.9 ± 0.1 <0.05 Increased adherence to diet based on meat, fish, eggs, and bean associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
Controls: 3.3 ± 0.1 α
Cross-sectional
Tangney et al., USA, 2002 [26] Healthy Age, BMI, tumor characteristics (stage, node, estrogen receptor), time since breast cancer diagnoses * 0.0003 Increased adherence to healthy diet associated with lower mean depressive symptom scores
Samieri et al., France, 2008 [25] Healthy Age, education, income, marital status Males: −0.12 (−0.31, 0.07) 0.21 No association
Females: −0.16 (−0.33, 0.007) 0.06 No association
Jeffery et al., USA, 2009 [19] Low calorie BMI, energy intake −0.027 (*) <0.001 Increased adherence to low calorie diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
Beydoun et al., USA, 2010 [34] Healthy overall Age, ethnicity, marital status, education, poverty status, smoking, illicit drug use, BMI Males: −0.035 (0.025) NS* No association
Females: −0.070 (0.023) <0.05 Increased adherence to healthy overall diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms for females
Jacka et al., Australia, 2010 [7] ‘Traditional’ (healthy) dietary pattern Age, socioeconomic status, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol energy intake C1: Referent <0.05 Increased adherence to a traditional diet (vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, wholegrain foods) with reduced odds of depression
C2: 0.65 (0.43, 0.98)
Jacka et al., Australia, 2010 [7] Diet quality score Age, socioeconomic status, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy intake C1: Referent NS* No association
C2: 0.85 (0.65, 1.13)
Jacka et al., Australia, 2010 [7] ‘Modern’ dietary pattern Age, socioeconomic status, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol energy intake C1: Referent NS* No association
C2: 1.29 (0.96, 1.73)
Kuczmarski et al., USA, 2010 [29] Healthy diet quality Sex, education, income, race * <0.0001 Increased adherence to healthy diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
Aihara et al., Japan, 2011 [27] Well-balanced meals Age, prior depression, illness, cognitive difficulties, gender Males: <0.05 Increased adherence to eating well-balanced meals associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
C1: Referent
C2: 2.75 (1.25, 6.05)
Females: <0.01
C1: Referent
C2: 2.37(1.27, 4.43)
Fowles, Bryant et al., USA, 2011 [31] Total diet quality Age, education, social support, eating habits −0.293 (*)†ψ <0.01 Healthier total diet quality associated with lower mean depressive symptoms
Jacka et al., Norway, 2011 [8] Healthy dietary pattern Age, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy consumption Males:
C1: Referent
C2: 1.02 (0.87, 1.19) 0.92 No association
Females:
C1: Referent
C2: 0.68 (0.57, 0.87) <0.001 Increased adherence to healthy diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms for females
Jacka et al., Norway, 2011 [8] Diet quality score Age, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy consumption Males: OR (95% CI) per SD increase: 0.83 (0.70, 0.99) 0.034 Increased adherence to healthy (total) diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms for males and females
Females: OR (95% CI) per SD increase: 0.71 (0.59, 0.84) <0.001

* Data not provided. ψ Outcome was defined by the combination of depression and stress scores. Results presented as Odds Ratio (OR) or Hazards Ratio (HR) and (95%CI), except where indicated by superscripts: beta regression coefficients (± SE), or α mean (±SE).

Quirk et al.

Quirk et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:175   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-175

Open Data