Table 1

Clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD) inpatients with therapy-resistant depression
Variable Total sample BD I BD II p
n= 19 n= 32
Demographics Gender (male), n (%) 24 (47.1) 7 (36.8) 17 (53.1) 0.201)
Age (years) 45.7 (10.5) 49.2 (9.2) 43.6 (10.8) 0.062)
Education (years) 13.8 (3.2) 12.6 (3.2) 14.5 (3.0) 0.042)
Premorbid IQ 112.9 (3.7) 112.0 (3.9)a 113.5 (3.4)b 0.182)
Course of illness Duration of illness (years) 30.6 (11.4) 33.4 (9.4)a 29.1 (12.2) 0.192)
Hospitalizations due to depressive episodes 4.3 (3.9) 4.7 (4.8)c 4.1 (3.5)d 0.823)
History of psychotic symptoms, n (%) 24 (48.0) 16 (84.2) 8 (25.8)e <0.011)
Number of psychotic episodes 1.8 (3.0) 3.6 (3.6)c 0.8 (2.1)f <0.013)
Lifetime DSM-IV-TR diagnosis Substance abuse, n (%) 15 (29.4) 6 (31.6) 9 (28.1) 1.001)
Anxiety, n (%) 14 (29.2) 8 (47.1)g 6 (19.4)e 0.061)
Symptom rating scales MADRS 37.0 (6.6) 36.8 (6.6) 37.2 (6.6) 0.872)
PANSS pos 9.8 (3.4) 9.7 (3.6)c 9.8 (3.4) 0.763)
GAF-S 37.3 (10.9) 41.0 (9.8)a 35.3 (11.1) 0.103)

Data are mean (SD) values unless otherwise specified for total group and groups with BD I or BD II subtype, accompanied by p values for statistical comparisons between subtypes: 1)chi-square test; 2)independent-samples t-test; 3)Mann-Whitney Test. Data presented in bold, p < 0.05.

SD, Standard deviation; MADRS, Montgomery and Åsberg depression rating scale; PANSS pos, Positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia, positive subscale; GAF-S, Global assessment of functioning–split version, symptom subscale; DSM-IV-TR, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision.

an = 18, bn = 28, cn = 15, dn = 30, en = 31, fn = 29, gn = 17.

Kessler et al.

Kessler et al. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:105   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-105

Open Data