Table 1

Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics divided in four groups according to the applied coercive intervention(s) during the first 24 h
Demographic and Clinical characteristics
Coercive experience
Variable N*

Group 1

Seclusion only

Group 2

Involuntary medication only

Group 3

Combined

Seclusion & medication

Group 4

Combined Seclusion & mechanical restraint

P
N = 62 N = 18 N = 34 N = 11**
N (%)/Mean (SD) N (%)/Mean (SD) N (%)/Mean (SD) N (%)/Mean (SD)
Male gender 125 36(58%) 11(61%) 24(71%) 10(91%) 0.2
Mean age 125 36(12) 38(13) 39(13) 35(15) 0.6
Married status: single 118 45(48%) 15(16%) 25(27%) 9 (10%) 0.7
Ethnicity
1st & 2nd generation immigrants 120 13(22%) 5(28%) 7(22%) 3(27%) 0.9
Legal status upon admission
Involuntary commitment 119 37(65%) 12(67%) 24(73%) 9(82%) 0.7
Coercive experience during previous admissions 106 19(36%) 2(13%) 17(63%) 5(46%) 0.01¹
Patients and their diagnosis*** 119
Psychotic disorder 46 16(27%) 7(39%) 17(53%) 6(60%) 0.0452
Mood disorder 39 20(34%) 6(33%) 12(38%) 1(10%) 0.4
Personality disorder 14 5(9%) 6(33%) 3(9%) 0 -
Addiction 31 19(32%) 5(28%) 4(13%) 3(30%) 0.2
PTSD 5 3(5%) 0 2(6%) 0 -
Oral (versus intramuscular) administration of medication 52 X 14(78%) 12(43%) 2(50%) 0.08
Level of coercion at the start of the measure 115 3.6(3) 3(3) 4.8(3) 5.8(3.8) 0.08
Mean duration seclusion episode in hours**** 105 21(31) X 31(38) 65(67) 0.13
Mean score GAF
Pre-measurement 125 44 (9) 41 (9) 41 (11) 35 (12) 0.033
Post-measurement 122 60(16) 54(16) 54(14) 54(20) 0.2
Change score**** 122 16(14) 12(15) 14(15) 19(20) 0.3
Mean score Uncooperativeness (PANSS)
Pre-measurement***** 125 5(1.5) 5(1.5) 6(1.4) 6(1) 0.0014
Post-measurement 119 3(1) 4(2) 3(2) 4(2) 0.4
Change score 119 −1.7(1.7) −1(1.9) −2.5(2) −2(2) 0.1
Mean score Lack of judgment and Insight (PANSS)
Pre-measurement***** 125 5(1.5) 5(1.5) 6(1.6) 6(0.9) 0.0015
Post-measurement 119 3.5(1) 4.3(1.9) 4.2(1.7) 4.8(1.6) 0.03
Change score 119 −1.2(1.5) -.9(1.7) −1.6(1.7) −1.4(1.8) 0.5
Mean score SDAS
Pre-measurement 125 18(9) 18(7) 21(8) 22(10) 0.2
Post-measurement**** 119 7(7) 11(9) 8(8) 10(12) 0.5
Change score 119 −11(9) −7(9) −13(9) −14(9) 0.1

* The n and the percentage of respondents vary across the variables, because some of the clinical files were incomplete.

** This includes one patient who received extra involuntary medication and 3 patients who received prn medication.

*** 20% of the patients had more than one diagnose.

**** Analyses were conducted with the logarithmic transformed scores to normalize the distribution.

***** Non-parametric tests (Kruskal Wallis & Mann Whitney U) were used.

¹ Group 3 differs significantly from group 1 & group 2.

2 Group 1 differs significantly from group 3.

3 Group 1 differs significantly from group 4.

4 Group 1 & 2 differs significantly from group 3 & group 4.

5 Group 1 differs significantly from group 3 & group 4; group 2 differs significantly from group 4.

Georgieva et al.

Georgieva et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:54   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-54

Open Data