Table 2

The multilevel regression model of depressive symptomsaand PHQ-6 scores with demographic variablesb, life stress, family satisfaction, and neighborhood cohesion in those with chronic conditions (N = 6,195)
Variables PHQ-9 scores PHQ-6 scores
Unstandardized coefficients Std. Error Standardized coefficients t Unstandardized coefficients Std. Error Standardized coefficients t
Age (years) 0.00 c 0.00 0.02 1.39 0.00 c ** 0.00 0.04 2.84
Gender (female vs. male) 0.55*** 0.08 0.09 7.31 0.15** 0.05 0.04 3.21
Marital status (unmarried vs. married) 0.19* 0.02 0.03 2.06 0.16** 0.06 0.03 2.75
Number of chronic conditions 0.54*** 0.04 0.15 11.97 0.27*** 0.03 0.12 9.54
Body mass index (kg/m2) −0.05*** 0.01 −0.07 −5.21 −0.02** 0.01 −0.04 −3.20
Alcohol problem drinking (yes vs. no) 0.36* 0.18 0.03 2.06 0.11 0.11 0.01 1.01
Physical activity (more active vs. less active) −0.23** 0.08 −0.04 −2.76 −0.15* −0.05 −0.04 −2.91
Life stress 3.84*** 0.10 0.46 36.54 2.30*** 0.07 0.44 35.0
Family satisfaction −0.11*** 0.01 −0.12 −9.53 −0.05*** 0.01 −0.10 −7.61
Gender by family satisfaction interaction −0.05* 0.02 −0.03 −2.20 −0.03* 0.01 −0.02 −2.25
Neighborhood cohesion −0.22*** 0.06 −0.04 3.47 −0.16*** 0.04 0.05 −3.99
Living alone (yes vs. no) 0.18 0.12 0.02 1.46 0.09 0.08 0.02 1.19
R2 for the full model d

* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

a Depressive symptoms were measured by the PHQ-9.

b Variables that were significant in bivariate analyses were entered as independent variables in the multilevel regression analysis.

c The coefficients were small and below two decimals.

d Intra-class correlation within family was 0.12 for both PHQ-9 and PHQ-6.

Nan et al.

Nan et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:198   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-198

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