Table 1

Frequency of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) associated with schizophrenia identified in the literaturea
PSD category (ICF code) Papers in which a PSD category was assessed n (%)
Mental functions
Cognitive functions 28 (26.9)
 in general (b1) 14 (13.5)
 attention (b140) 11 (10.6)
 memory (b144) 8 (7.7)
 thought functions (b160) 8 (7.7)
 insight (b1644) 6 (5.8)
 executive functions (b164) 5 (4.8)
 language (b167) 3 (2.9)
Emotional functions 28 (26.9)
 depression (b1522) 16 (15.4)
 anxiety (b152) 14 (13.5)
 anhedonia (b1520) 5 (4.8)
 hostility (b1522) 5 (4.8)
 flat affect (b1522) 4 (3.8)
 dysphoria (b1522) 2 (1.9)
 feelings of stress (b152) 2 (1.9)
 in general (b152) 2 (1.9)
 mania (b152) 2 (1.9)
 anger (b152) 1 (1.0)
 emotional regulation (b1521) 1 (1.0)
 emotional withdrawal (b152) 1 (1.0)
Energy and drive 16 (15.4)
 motivation (b1301) 7 (6.7)
 libido (b1308) 4 (3.8)
 appetite (b1302) 3 (2.9)
 fatigue (b1300) 3 (2.9)
 vitality (b1300) 3 (2.9)
 apathy (b130) 2 (1.9)
Psychomotor functions (b147) 11 (10.6)
Sleep 10 (9.6)
 insomnia (b1340) 8 (7.7)
 somnolence (b1340) 7 (6.7)
Global psychosocial functions 9 (8.7)
 emotional perception (b122) 6 (5.8)
 social cognition (b122) 5 (4.8)
Sensory functions and pain
Pain (b280) 11 (10.6)
Activities and participation
Relationships with others 32 (30.8)
 in general (d7) 19 (18.3)
 family relationships (d760) 7 (6.7)
 aggressive behaviour (d7202) 5 (4.8)
 inappropriate behaviour (d7202 + d7203) 5 (4.8)
 intimate relationships (d770) 5 (4.8)
 relationships with acquaintances (d7502) 3 (2.9)
 relationships with health professionals (d7408) 2 (1.9)
 behaviour at work (d740) 1 (1.0)
 relationships with peers and colleagues (d7504) 1 (1.0)
Employment 21 (20.2)
 in general (d850) 19 (18.3)
 work efficiency (d850) 1 (1.0)
 keeping employment (d8451) 1 (1.0)
 obtaining employment (d845) 1 (1.0)
Looking after ones’ health 12 (11.5)
 treatment adherence (d5702) 11 (10.6)
 in general (d570) 1 (1.0)
Participating in social activities (d9) 11 (10.6)
Self-care 11 (10.6)
 in general (d5) 10 (9.6)
 personal hygiene and appearance (d598) 1 (1.0)
Communication (d3) 7 (6.7)
Doing housework (d640) 6 (5.8)
Leisure activites (d920) 5 (4.8)
Global scores or global concepts closely related to PSDs
Psychopathological symptomsb 55 (52.9)
 negative symptoms 39 (37.5)
 positive symptoms 39 (37.5)
 global intensity of symptoms 37 (35.6)
 general psychopathology 18 (17.3)
Disability and functioning 38 (36.5)
 global disability or global functioning 26 (25.0)
 social functioning 18 (17.3)
Quality of life and wellbeing 24 (23.1)
 quality of life 14 (13.5)
 wellbeing 8 (7.7)
 satisfaction in general 5 (4.8)
Health status 12 (11.5)
 physical health 9 (8.7)
 general health 6 (5.8)
 psychological health 5 (4.8)
 mental health 3 (2.9)
Activities of daily living (ADL) 5 (4.8)
Other variables
Skills 11 (10.6)
 social skills 8 (7.7)
 general interpersonal skills 4 (3.8)
 work skills 2 (1.9)
 in general 2 (1.9)
 communication skills 1 (1.0)
Attitude towards treatment 5 (4.8)
Dependency 5 (4.8)
 in general 3 (2.9)
 living independently 2 (1.9)
Self-perception 5 (4.8)
 self-esteem 3 (2.9)
 self-image 1 (1.0)
 self-recognition 1 (1.0)

a Only PSD categories which appeared in at least 5 papers were taken into account.

b Under the general category of psychopathological symptoms were classified total scores of symptom rating scales, such as the PANSS or BPRS, or complex symptom clusters (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, or general psychopathology), which could not be linked to mental functions categories included in the ICF. More specific symptom dimensions derived from the PANSS or BPRS were placed under the respective categories of individual mental functions (e.g. emotional functions or energy and drive functions).

Świtaj et al.

Świtaj et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:193   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-193

Open Data