Table 3

Total healthcare costs during pre- and post-index periods among al l GAD patients newly started on benzodiazepines, by age*
Patient Age All Patients (N=866)
<50 Years (N=568) ≥50 Years (N=298)
Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value Pre-Index Post-Index P-Value
Pharmacotherapy
 Mean (SD) 583 (1,660) 1,295 (1,789) <0.01 829 (1,446) 1,873 (2,318) <0.01 668 (1,593) 1,494 (2,005) <0.01
 Median (IQR) 154 (0, 661) 813 (450, 1,497) --- 397 (17, 1,061) 1,217 (640, 2,165) --- 215 (3, 817) 917 (483, 1,695) ---
Outpatient services
 Outpatient office visits
  Accident-related
   Mean (SD) 437 (2,368) 518 (1,757) 0.46 591 (2,203) 749 (2,687) 0.27 490 (2,312) 598 (2,125) 0.22
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  Other possibly related
   Mean (SD) 287 (2,101) 418 (1,695) 0.19 297 (1,627) 624 (2,901) 0.04 290 (1,950) 489 (2,187) 0.02
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  All of above
   Mean (SD) 552 (2,416) 766 (2,095) 0.07 701 (2,221) 1,099 (3,425) 0.03 603 (2,351) 881 (2,633) <0.01
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 42) 0 (0, 422) --- 0 (0, 78) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 78) 0 (0, 315) ---
  All other
   Mean (SD) 802 (2,300) 1,228 (2,913) <0.01 1,331 (2,939) 1,840 (3,502) 0.03 984 (2,549) 1,439 (3,140) <0.01
   Median (IQR) 211 (0, 822) 432 (0, 1,300) --- 395 (0, 1,368) 678 (0, 2,061) --- 247 (0, 985) 483 (0, 1,565) ---
  All
   Mean (SD) 1,354 (3,201) 1,995 (3,315) <0.01 2,032 (3,421) 2,938 (4,465) <0.01 1,587 (3,292) 2,319 (3,775) <0.01
   Median (IQR) 533 (187, 1,455) 993 (430, 2,239) --- 845 (363, 2,174) 1,520 (548, 3,274) --- 641 (221, 1,623) 1,171 (463, 2,563) ---
 ED visits
  Accident-related
   Mean (SD) 99 (538) 143 (934) 0.16 59 (384) 161 (2,004) 0.39 85 (490) 149 (1,397) 0.16
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  Other possibly related
   Mean (SD) 116 (708) 99 (838) 0.57 96 (1,328) 178 (2,021) 0.08 109 (966) 126 (1,365) 0.50
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  All of above
   Mean (SD) 173 (768) 180 (976) 0.84 150 (1,377) 207 (2,036) 0.23 165 (1,019) 189 (1,431) 0.40
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  All other
   Mean (SD) 105 (547) 122 (554) 0.57 75 (440) 111 (677) 0.42 94 (513) 118 (599) 0.35
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
  All
   Mean (SD) 278 (924) 302 (1,103) 0.60 225 (1,438) 317 (2,135) 0.15 259 (1,127) 307 (1,537) 0.20
   Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
Hospitalizations
 Accident-related
  Mean (SD) 357 (3,235) 873 (10,042) 0.24 871 (7,386) 1,660 (17,048) 0.42 534 (5,065) 1,144 (12,885) 0.17
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 Other possibly related
  Mean (SD) 341 (2,898) 778 (9,468) 0.28 1,031 (8,303) 2,025 (17,635) 0.33 578 (5,412) 1,207 (12,880) 0.16
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All of above
  Mean (SD) 508 (3,650) 1,131 (10,472) 0.17 1,202 (8,516) 2,090 (17,663) 0.39 747 (5,809) 1,461 (13,387) 0.13
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All other
  Mean (SD) 444 (2,655) 252 (2,255) 0.18 865 (5,774) 396 (2,906) 0.20 589 (4,014) 301 (2,498) 0.07
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All
  Mean (SD) 953 (4,463) 1,382 (10,685) 0.35 2,067 (10,187) 2,485 (17,854) 0.70 1,336 (6,998) 1,762 (13,585) 0.38
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
All other care
 Accident-related
  Mean (SD) 80 (542) 78 (712) 0.95 124 (596) 247 (1,654) 0.18 95 (561) 136 (1,131) 0.30
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 Other possibly related
  Mean (SD) 63 (353) 55 (326) 0.65 100 (606) 267 (2,364) 0.23 76 (456) 128 (1,414) 0.29
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All of above
  Mean (SD) 118 (599) 118 (759) >0.99 177 (754) 423 (2,772) 0.13 138 (657) 223 (1,743) 0.16
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All other
  Mean (SD) 154 (540) 253 (1,405) 0.07 381 (1,535) 544 (2,845) 0.32 232 (1,006) 353 (2,023) 0.07
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 61) 0 (0, 63) --- 4 (0, 175) 9 (0, 224) --- 0 (0, 98) 0 (0, 106) ---
 All
  Mean (SD) 272 (784) 371 (1,578) 0.13 559 (1,670) 967 (3,913) 0.06 370 (1,174) 576 (2,640) 0.02
  Median (IQR) 16 (0, 191) 22 (0, 164) --- 84 (0, 374) 91 (0, 424) --- 37 (0, 237) 35 (0, 247) ---
Total
 Accident-related
  Mean (SD) 1,025 (4,833) 1,662 (11,324) 0.20 1,787 (9,131) 2,947 (19,831) 0.26 1,287 (6,638) 2,104 (14,814) 0.09
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 Other possibly related
  Mean (SD) 835 (4,628) 1,381 (10,518) 0.21 1,594 (10,275) 3,174 (21,009) 0.17 1,096 (7,101) 1,998 (14,993) 0.07
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) ---
 All of above
  Mean (SD) 1,414 (5,387) 2,272 (11,880) 0.09 2,411 (10,709) 3,970 (21,224) 0.16 1,757 (7,656) 2,856 (15,742) 0.03
  Median (IQR) 0 (0, 148) 0 (0, 539) --- 0 (0, 295) 0 (0, 0) --- 0 (0, 217) 0 (0, 397) ---
 All other
  Mean (SD) 2,247 (5,378) 3,122 (6,209) <0.01 3,505 (8,635) 4,664 (7,608) 0.04 2,680 (6,702) 3,653 (6,759) <0.01
  Median (IQR) 533 (0, 2,122) 1,343 (0, 3,521) --- 943 (0, 3,575) 2,263 (183, 5,746) --- 635 (0, 2,519) 1,528 (0, 4,236) ---
 All
  Mean (SD) 3,812 (7,278) 5,806 (13,073) <0.01 6,211 (13,308) 9,191 (22,540) 0.01 4,637 (9,840) 6,971 (17,002) <0.01
  Median (IQR) 1,540 (495, 3,723) 2,825 (1,304, 5,767) --- 2,381 (816, 6,017) 4,004 (1,886, 8,409) --- 1,805 (584, 4,590) 3,219 (1,460, 6,654) ---

*All values are healthcare costs ($).

GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder; SD: Standard deviation; ED: Emergency department; IQR: Interquartile range.

Berger et al.

Berger et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:177   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-177

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