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Open Access Research article

Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

Gricel Orellana1, Andrea Slachevsky234 and Marcela Peña56*

Author Affiliations

1 Departamento de Psiquiatría Oriente, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Av. Salvador 486, Providencia, Santiago, Chile

2 Centro de Investigación Avanzada en Educación, Universidad de Chile, Periodista Jose Carrasco Tapia 75, Santiago, Chile

3 Departamento de Neurología Oriente, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Av. Salvador 364, Providencia, Santiago, Chile

4 Servicio de Neurología, Hospital del Salvador, Santiago, Chile, Av. Salvador 364, Providencia, Santiago, Chile

5 Escuela de Psicología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago, Chile

6 Scuola Internazionale Superiore Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136, Italy

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BMC Psychiatry 2012, 12:154  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-154

Published: 22 September 2012

Abstract

Background

We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions).

Methods

We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction.

Results

The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network.

Conclusions

FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.

Keywords:
Schizophrenia; First-episode; Attention; ANT; Executive; Cognitive