Table 1

Overview of the 21 Studies
Sex Outcome (%)
Authors Diagnosis Period of Diagnosis N Dropout N (%) Age at onset (yrs.) Female Male Duration of follow-up (yrs.) Outcome criteria Original outcome ratings Good Moderate Poor
N (%) N (%)
Hassan et.al (2011) SZ, psychosis NOS 2003-2010 37 14 (27) Mean = 12.2 23 (62) 14 (38) Mean =3.2 CGAS: Good: ≥ 70 27.0 48.7 24.3
Moderate 40-70
Poor: ≤ 40 and partial or no remission.
Ledda et al. (2009) SZ 1992-2002 15 2 (12) Mean = 15.1 9 (53)* 8 (47)* 5 GAF* 11.8 60.0 27.6
Reichert et al. (2008) SZ & SZ-AFF 1990-2000 27 59 (80) Mean = 15.5 8 (30) 19 (70) Mean = 13.4 Employment 3,7% university study 22.2 51.8 25.9
18,6% regular work
48,1 sheltered work
25,9% unable to work
3,7% unemployed
Remschmidt et al. (2007) SZ 1920-1961 38 0 (0) 5-14 23 (61) 15 (39) Mean = 42 GAS: 5.8 23.7 60.5
Good >71
Moderate: 41-70
Poor: <40
Fleischhaker et al. (2005) SZ 1983-1988 81 20 (20) 11-18 36 (44) 45 (56) 4-11 GAF: 19.80 38.20 42.00
Poor: <40
Moderate: 41-70
Good >71
Helgeland et al. (2005) SZ 1963-1978 9 N.A 13-17 1 (11) 8 (89) Mean = 28,1 Social disability (medication, means of income, living situation) All on antipsychotic medication at follow-up, all on disablement benefits, none living in an ordinary home 0,00 0.0 100.00
Röpcke et al. (2005) SZ, SZ-AFF, schizo-phreni-form disorder 1979-1988 39 16 (29) Mean = 16 19 (49) 20 (51) 10.2-21.2 GAS: 21.00 28.00 51.00
Good >60
Moderate: 51-60
Poor: <51
Jarbin (2003a) SZ 1982-1993 30 58 (66) 11.8 - 18.7 11 (37) 19 (63) 5.1-18.2 GAF (or employment if GAF not available) 79% very poor 3.00 0.00 97.00
18% poor
3% good
Hollis, (2000b) SZ 1973-1991 51 17 (25) Mean = 14.0 22 (43) 29 (57) 4-22 Remission at follow-up 12.00 40.00 48.00
Lay et al. (2000) SZ & SZ-AFF (ICD-9) 1976-1987 65 31 (32) 11,5-17,9 38 (59) 27 (41) 10 Social disability (DAS-scale and global evaluation on a 6-points scale) 12,5% no dysfunction, 20.00 44.00 36.00
7,8% minimum,
14,1% obvious,
29,7% serious,
31,3% very serious,
4,7% maximum dysfunction
McClellan et al. (1999) SZ 11 7 (39) 11-16 3 (27) 8 (73) 2 Course of illness and description of impairment 0.0 9.00 91.00
Aarkrog (1999) SZ, SZ-AFF 1968-1976 28 N.A. 12-20 (M = 16.8) 7 (25) 21 (75) 17-26 GAS 3.6 17.9 78.5
Eggers et al. (1997) SZ (DSM-III-R) 1925-1961 44 27 (38) 6-14 25 (57) 19 (43) Mean = 42 Social disability (Eggers social scale) 1-2: Good remission GAS >70 25.00 25.00 50.00
3-4: Moderate remission < GAS 51
5-6: Poor remission - < GAS 40
Maziade et al. (1996) SZ (DSM-III-R) 1968-1990 40 37 (48) 10-17 13 (33) 28 (67) 14.8 GAS 5.00 15.00 80.00
Werry et al. (1994) SZ, Schizo-phreni-form disorder 1968-1990 53 41 (36) 7-17 22 (42) 31 (58) 4.3 Living situation 20.7 17.00 62.30
Rund 1994 SZ (ICD-9) 1980-1990 24 0 (0) 13,1-17,9 (Mean = 16) 8 (33) 16 (67) 2 GAS 0 21.0 79.0
Cawthron et al., 1994 SZ (ICD-9) 1975-1986 9 10 (53) 14-18 - - 2-13 Adult Personality Functioning Assessment Seven (78%) continuously ill. None of these employed or married; extremely poor social functioning. The two recovered patients (22%) were ill for only 2% of the follow-up period. 22.00 0.00 78.00
Asarnow et al. (1994) SZ 1980-? 18 3 (14) 6-11,3 5 (24) 13 (76) 2-7 CGAS 28% good outcome CGAS >60, 28% 28.00 28.00 44.00
>60 = good
51-60 = moderate
moderate improvement CGAS 51–60, 28%
<51 = poor
minimal improvement CGAS <51, 17% deteriorating CGAS <41
Gillberg et al. (1993) SZ (DSM-III / ICD 9) Born 1960–1982. 23 0 (0) 13-19 9 (39) 14 (61) 11-17 Overall register data outcome 13% overall possibly good 13.00 9.00 78.00
9% intermediate outcome
78% extremely poor
Krausz et al. (1993) SZ, mood disorders, psychoses (PSE) 1972-1978 55 6 (10) 14-18 28 (51) 27 (49) 11-16 Mental and social handicaps rated according to Brown (1966), 20% inpatient, 26% 29.6 18.5 51.9
seriously handicapped
16% handicapped but employed
26% not handicapped
12% no findings
Inoue et al. (1986) EOS and acute psychotic episode (DSM-III) 1971-1981 19 N.A. 10-17 9 (47) 10 (53) 3 Ability to work 47% unable to work 16.00 37.00 47.00
16% limited work ability
21% working at a lower level than previously, 16% working as before

If not otherwise specified: GAF: Global Assessment of Functioning >70 = Good; 70-51 = Moderate; <51 = poor. SZ: Schizophrenia. SZ-AFF: Schizoaffective disorder. CGAS: Children Global Assesment of Functioning Scale. GAS: Global Assessment Scale. N.A. = Not assessed. PSE = Present State Examination. *Based on N at baseline.

Clemmensen et al.

Clemmensen et al. BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:150   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-150

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