Table 1

Characteristics of overweight and obese study participants by major depressive symptoms or by moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score of ≥ 10), NHANES 2005-2006 *

n

Major depressive symptoms

Moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10)


Yes

No

P-value

Yes

No

P-value


N

2,439

68

2,371

152

2,287

Age (year)

0.009

0.019

20-< 40

746

19.7 (3.6)

32.5 (1.2)

24.3 (2.8)

32.6 (1.3)

40-< 60

886

69.3 (4.8)

43.4 (1.5)

57.0 (4.0)

43.3 (1.5)

≥ 60

807

11.0 (4.4)

24.1 (2.1)

18.7 (3.9)

24.1 (2.1)

Sex

< 0.001

0.007

Men

1,325

30.9 (6.2)

54.3 (0.8)

40.8 (4.9)

54.5 (0.9)

Women

1,114

69.1 (6.2)

45.7 (0.8)

59.2 (4.9)

45.5 (0.9)

Race‡

0.249

0.152

NH white

1,215

69.0 (8.3)

73.2 (2.9)

68.1 (5.6)

73.4 (3.0)

NH black

589

17.5 (4.6)

11.5 (2.0)

16.7 (3.5)

11.4 (2.0)

Other

635

13.5 (5.2)

15.3 (1.9)

15.2 (4.1)

15.2 (2.0)

Education

0.144

0.020

< high school

diploma

628

21.6 (5.3)

16.1 (1.6)

18.9 (3.3)

16.1 (1.6)

high school

graduate

608

39.2 (7.6)

25.6 (1.1)

37.7 (4.2)

25.3 (1.1)

> high school

diploma

1,203

39.2 (7.2)

58.2 (1.8)

43.4 (4.3)

58.6 (1.8)

PIR§

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 1

393

33.5 (5.9)

9.5 (0.7)

26.9 (2.5)

9.1 (0.7)

1-< 3

987

45.9 (7.8)

34.2 (2.1)

45.7 (4.9)

33.8 (2.1)

3-≤5

1,059

20.6 (6.9)

56.3 (2.3)

27.4 (4.0)

57.1 (2.3)

BMI (kg/m2)

0.037

0.008

25-< 30

1,202

33.0 (5.9)

49.1 (1.6)

34.0 (4.8)

49.6 (1.6)

≥ 30

1,237

67.0 (5.9)

50.9 (1.6)

66.0 (4.8)

50.4 (1.6)

No. of chronic conditions**

0.014

< 0.001

0

966

20.6 (7.0)

42.3 (1.6)

23.2 (4.6)

42.8 (1.5)

1

621

27.8 (9.0)

26.8 (1.8)

23.9 (5.3)

27.0 (1.8)

2

401

26.0 (4.6)

16.0 (1.0)

20.1 (3.3)

16.0 (1.0)

≥ 3

451

25.7 (6.6)

14.9 (1.4)

32.8 (3.2)

14.2 (1.4)

Waist circumference (cm)

2,439

110.5 (2.2)

105.1 (0.5)

0.022

109.1 (1.7)

105.0 (0.5)

0.019


*Data expressed as percentages with standard errors in parentheses for all categorical variables and expressed as means with standard errors for waist circumference. †Chi-Square test for categorical variables and Student t-test for continuous variables. ‡NH: non-Hispanic, §PIR: poverty-income ratio. ** Chronic conditions included hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic renal disease, and cancer.

Zhao et al. BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:130   doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-130

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