Table 1

Risk factors for MA: quality of included studies

Study Year

Study Design

Downs and Black Score

Present Adjusted OR

Funding Source


Low-risk youth as the comparison group


Lampinen 2006

Cross-sectional

15

Yes

Other


Oetting 2000

Cross-sectional

12

No

Government


Sattah 2002

Cross-sectional

15

Yes

Government


Yen 2006a

Case-control

15

Yes

Government


Yen 2004b

Cross-sectional

13

No

NR


High-risk youth as the comparison group


Kim 2002

Cross-sectional

16

No

Government


Miura 2006

Case-control

15

Yes

NR


Palmer 2005

Case-control

13

No

NR


Rawson 2005

Cross-sectional

14

Yes

NR


Shillington 2005

Cross-sectional

18

Yes

Other


Shillington 2003

Cross-sectional

17

No

NR


Uchida 1995

Cross-sectional

12

No

NR


a Age and sex matched

b Sex matched

Russell et al. BMC Pediatrics 2008 8:48   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-8-48

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