Table 2

The evidence synthesis.

Study

Intervention vs. control

Outcome measure

Difference between the groups


Moderate evidence on effectiveness


Upper extremity treatment (1 high-quality trial)

Wallen et al [40]

OT vs. no treatment

Goal Attainment Scale

Range of motion in active supination

6 mo: p = 0.054

6 mo: p = 0.008

Hallam [43]

Prehensile hand treatment+NDT vs. NDT (twice a week) vs. NDT (once a week)

GMDS developmental quotient

p < 0.002*

Constraint induced (CI) therapy (2 lower-quality trials)

Charles et al [52]

CI therapy with a sling vs. no therapy

Amount of hand use†

Quality of hand use†

1 wk: effect size 0.3, p < .01

1, 6 mo: effect size 0.2, p < 0.01

Taub et al [53]

CI therapy with a cast vs. early intervention program

Amount of hand use‡

Quality of hand use‡

3 wk: p < 0.0001

3 wk: p < 0.0001


Moderate evidence on ineffectiveness


Strength training (4 lower-quality trials with walking speed, and 2 lower-quality trials with stride length as an outcome)

Liao et al [44]

Home-based loaded sit-to-stand exercise vs. no training

Self-selected walking speed

6 wk: NS

Dodd et al [48]

Home-based strength training vs. no training

Self-selected walking speed

6, 18 wk: NS

Patikas et al [45]

Strength training vs. no training

Walking speed

Stride length

9 mo: NS

9 mo: NS

Unger et al [47]

Circuit training vs. no training

Walking speed

Stride length

9 wk: NS

9 wk: NS


Conflicting evidence


Strength training (3 lower-quality trials with GMFM as an outcome)

Liao et al [44]

Home-based loaded sit-to-stand exercise vs. no training

GMFM

6 wk: effect size 1.17, p = 0.02

Patikas et al [46]

Home-based strength training vs. no training

GMFM

12 mo: NS

Dodd et al [48]

Home-based strength training vs. no training

GMFM

6, 18 wk: NS


mo = months, wk = weeks, GMDF = Griffith's Mental Developmental Scales, GMFM = Gross Motor Function Measure,

* For the prehensile hand treatment+NDT and extra NDT groups compared to NDT group,

† Caregiver Functional Use Survey (14 items, 6-point Likert scale),

‡ Paediatric Motor Activity Log (22 items, scale 0–5)

Anttila et al. BMC Pediatrics 2008 8:14   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-8-14

Open Data