Table 1

Sample distribution and prevalence of anemia among children aged 0–35 months by passive smoking status and other selected characteristics, Jordan 2002

Characteristic

Number of children

Percent distribution of children

Percentage of children with anemia


Jordan

740

-

19.3

Passive smoking status-1

None of parents smoke

259

35.0

18.8

One of parents smoke

423

57.1

16.5

Both parents smoke

59

7.9

41.6

Passive smoking status-2

None of parents smoke

259

35.0

18.8

Mother smoke

68

9.1

37.8

Father smoke

414

55.9

16.6

Child's age (months)

0–11

301

40.7

22.8

12–23

257

34.8

20.9

24–35

181

24.5

11.3

Child's sex

Boy

392

52.9

18.7

Girl

348

47.1

20.0

Child's birth order

1

124

16.8

21.7

2

123

16.6

20.3

3

150

20.3

17.7

4+

343

46.3

18.8

Birth weight

≥ 2,500 g

665

89.9

18.2

< 2,500 g

73

9.9

27.8

Breastfeeding status (months)

Never

26

3.5

24.2

0–11

415

56.1

20.3

12–17

177

24.0

17.4

18–23

88

11.9

22.1

≥ 24

34

4.6

6.2

Stunted

Not stunted

659

89.1

18.8

Moderately stunted

41

5.6

20.9

Severely stunted

10

1.4

60.4

Iron intake during pregnancy

Not taken

199

26.9

17.3

1–2 trimesters

437

59.1

21.6

3 trimesters

100

13.5

13.8

Mother's anemia

No/mild

519

70.1

17.9

Moderate/severe

213

28.2

22.8

Mother's age at childbirth (years)

13–24

189

25.6

25.1

25–34

426

57.6

18.6

35–49

124

16.8

12.8

Mother's BMI (kg/m2)

18.5 – 24.9

264

35.6

19.5

< 18.5

17

2.3

39.4

≥ 25.0

459

62.0

18.5

Mother's education

No education

26

3.5

26.8

Primary or less

67

9.1

16.6

Secondary or higher

647

87.5

19.3

Household wealth status

Low

250

33.8

22.5

Middle

304

41.2

17.1

High

186

25.1

18.6

Safe drinking water$

No

54

7.3

22.1

Yes

686

92.7

19.1

Hygienic toilet@

No

97

13.1

35.9

Yes

643

86.9

16.8

Urban/rural

Urban

547

73.9

18.1

Rural

193

26.1

22.6

Geographic region*

Central

491

66.4

19.9

Northern

175

23.7

18.2

Southern

74

10.0

17.8


A stunted (chronically under-nourished) child was defined as having his/her height-for-age more than two standard deviations below the median of an international reference population recommended by the World Health Organization. Children with a height-for-age z-score below -2 standard deviations but above -3 standard deviations were defined as moderately stunted, and those below -3 standard deviations were defined as severely stunted.

Household wealth is calculated base on the possession of household assets and characteristics included radio, television, refrigerator, car, truck, main floor material, and electricity using principle component analysis.

$Safe sources of drinking water include piped water and tube well.

@Hygienic toilet includes flush (own/shared) toilet connecting to sewage or having a septic tank *Jordan is divided into 12 administrative governorates, which are grouped into three regions – the North region (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, and Mafraq), the Central region (Amman, Zarqa, Balqa, and Madaba), and the South region (Karak, Tafielah, Ma'an, and Aqaba).

Hong et al. BMC Pediatrics 2007 7:16   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-7-16

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