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Open Access Research article

Prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter species among under five diarrheic children at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

Ayalew Lengerh1, Feleke Moges2*, Chandrashekhar Unakal2 and Belay Anagaw2

Author Affiliations

1 College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar Teaching Hospital Laboratory, Bacteriology Section, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

2 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

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BMC Pediatrics 2013, 13:82  doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-82

Published: 21 May 2013

Abstract

Background

Recent reports indicate that Campylobacter species are becoming one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide and most of the isolates are resistant to different antibiotics. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, associated risk factors and susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter species in under-five diarrheic children.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012. Samples were collected from under five diarrhoeic children who visited University of Gondar Teaching Hospital and seeking medical services during the study period. Stool specimens were aseptically inoculated using selective media and species isolation was further processed following standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for Campylobacter species was performed using the standard agar disc diffusion method. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 packages. Odd ratio was used to see their association between variables and then logistic regression was used to measure strengths of association. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant.

Result

A total of 285 under five children with diarrhoea were included in this study. Of these144 (50.5%) were males and 141(49.5%) were females with the age range of one month to five years and mean age of 2.26 years (25months). Among 285 stool specimens cultured, 44(15.4%) of them were positive for Campylobacter species. Culture positivity for Campylobacter was higher in children below 12 months of age. Latrine usage, water source, boiling drinking water, bottle feeding, nutritional status and exposure to domestic animals had statistically significant association. Highest drug resistance rate were found in ampicillin (68.2%), tetracycline (56.8%) and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (54.5%).

Conclusion

Isolation rate of Campylobacter species were frequent among under five children. The frequency was higher in those children who were malnourished, drinking of unprotected water and direct contact with infected animals (especially cats, dogs, pigeons, hens and their products). The antimicrobial resistance patterns for some of the commonly prescribed antibiotics were high. Therefore, awareness of hand washing and proper boiling of drinking water are probably important in preventing infection with Campylobacter species and childhood diarrhea should not be underestimated and effectiveness of the drugs should be continuously monitored by doing antimicrobial susceptibility test.

Keywords:
Antimicrobial susceptibility; Campylobacter species; Under five children; Risk factors