Table 5

The association between WHO HIV stages and urine abnormalities** on microscopy and culture among HIV-infected, ART naïve children, 2-12years old n=220
Urine abnormalities n (%) OR (95% CI) P value
Clinical stages
Stage 1&2 15 (12.9)
Stage 3&4 33 (27.0) 2.20(1.06; 4.60) 0.021
Immunological stage***
Not significantly immnosuppressed 11 (12.2)
Mild immunosuppression 15 (42.9) 5.4 (2.11; 13.84) <0.001
Advanced immunosuppression 8 (20.0) 1.8 (0.62; 5.20) 0.277
Severe immunosuppression 11 (23.9) 2.26(0.88; 5.83) 0.277

OR= Odds ratio CI=confidence interval.

**The urine abnormalities are UTI (including schistosomiasis), sterile pyuria and asymptomatic bacteriuria.

***Two children with urine abnormalities did not have CD4 count results.

Logistic regression and odds ratios presented.

Dondo et al.

Dondo et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:75   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-75

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