Table 2

Staging of extravasation injuries[17]as adapted from Millan[10]
Stage Characteristics
I Painful intravenous site, no erythema, no swelling
II Painful intravenous site, slight swelling, no blanching, good pulse below intravenous site, brisk capillary refill below intravenous site
III Painful intravenous site, marked swelling, blanching, skin cool to touch, good pulse below intravenous site, brisk capillary refill below intravenous site
IV Painful intravenous site, very marked swelling, blanching, skin cool to touch, decreased or absent pulse, capillary refill over 4 s, skin breakdown or necrosis.

Restieaux et al.

Restieaux et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:34   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-34

Open Data