Table 1

Primary and secondary outcome measures for the Language for Learning Trial
Construct Timing (years) Measure Additional information
4 5 6
Primary Outcome
Expressive and Receptive language Clinical Ev aluation of Language Fundamentals - Preschool Second Edition (CELF P2) [44] Baseline only: Basic Concepts
5 Years only: Word Classes (receptive + expressive subtests)
6 Years only: Word Classes (receptive only).
Secondary Outcomes
Receptive vocabulary Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-4) [45] Used with Intervention group only at 4–5 Years (Baseline)
Phonological skills Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) [46] Subtests used: Elision; Blending Words; Sound Matching.
Contribute to Phonological Awareness Composite Score.
Sutherland Phonological Awareness Test – Revised: Modified (SPAT-R) [47] Three individual scores obtained for the 3 subtests used: Rhyme Detection Subtest; Onset Phoneme Identification; Letter Knowledge (study specific)
Children's Test of Non-Word Repetition (CNREP) [48] Data on subgroup only at baseline, as measure was discontinued due to time restrictions
Literacy skills Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) [49] 3 subtests used: Word Reading; Sentence Comprehension;
Spelling; Word Reading and Spelling create ‘Reading Composite’
Pragmatic skills (social language use) Children’s Communication Checklist, 2nd Edition (CCC:2) [50] 28 items on the 4 subscales used: inappropriate initiation; stereotyped language; use of context; nonverbal communication.
Narrative The Renfrew Language Scales: Bus Story Test [51] Used with Intervention group only at baseline
Non-verbal intelligence Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, 2nd Edition (KBIT-2) [52] Only the matrices subtest was used as it gives a measure of nonverbal (fluid) intelligence
Early childhood development Ages & Stages Questionnaire (A&SQ) [53] 5 developmental areas: Communication; Gross Motor; Fine Motor; Problem Solving; Personal-Social; totals for each developmental area are compared with empirical cut-points for each area
Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) [54] Teacher reported questionnaire measuring 5 domains: social competence; emotional maturity; language and cognitive skills (school-based); communication skills and general knowledge
Quality of life Health Utilities Index (HUI)- Mark 2 and 3 [55] Parent-reported measure scored using a single- and multi-attribute utility function based on preference scores (sensation, mobility, self-care, fertility, vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, pain). Scores will be used to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)
Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL); parent-proxy [56] Parent-completed 23 item scale comprising 4 dimensions, with 3 summary Scores: Total; Physical Health; Psychosocial Health.
Behaviour Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ ) [57] 25 item measure that yields one score of total behavioural problems and scores for emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and prosocial subscales
Service Utilisation Study generated Parent-reported questionnaire to track health service utilisation by population with a specific health condition

Wake et al.

Wake et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:96   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-96

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