Table 2

Changes in infant difficult behaviors among the ages of 3 and 6 months

Infant's difficult behaviors

Proportion of infants (%)

Measure of agreement kappa


High rate of difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months

High rate of difficult behaviors at the age of 6 months

High rate of difficult behaviors at both 3 and 6 months


Prolonged or frequent diarrhea or constipation

11.0

13.9

2.3

0.072


Pronounced lack of interest in being fed or active refusal to eat

6.4

7.6

2.3

0.284***


Excessive demand to be fed

11.1

5.3

1.8

0.154*


Frequent waking and crying at night

4.7

18.1

3.5

0.252***


General frequent and intense crying

2.9

3.5

0.6

0.155*


Noticeable stiffening, turning away, or crying when picked up or handled

6.5

6.5

1.8

0.222**


Pronounced clinging when picked up or intense crying when put down

13.4

9.9

4.7

0 0.323***


Index of infant difficult behaviors

30.2

22.2

11,1

0.266***


* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

dichotomized into negative and positive values, which correspond to low and high rates of difficult behaviors.

Sirvinskiene et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:44   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-44

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