Table 9 

Prevalence of undernutrition relative to the international growth references among Pakistani primary school children aged five to twelve years 

Reference 
Stunting < 2 SD heightforage z score 
Underweight < 2 SD weightforage z score 
Thinness/Wasting < 2 SD BMIforage z score 



n (%) 
P value^{a} 
n (%) 
P value^{a} 
n (%) 
P value^{a} 



Boys (n = 977) 



WHO 2007 
84 (8.6) 
0.146 
69 (7.1)^{b} 
< 0.001 
99 (10.1) 
< 0.001 




USCDC 2000 
90 (9.2) 
126 (12.9) 
125 (12.8) 



IOTF^{c} 
 
 
36 (3.7)^{d} 
< 0.001^{g} 



45 (4.6)^{e} 
< 0.001^{h} 



180 (18.4)^{f} 



Girls (n = 883) 



WHO 2007 
68 (7.7) 
0.774 
56 (6.3)^{i} 
< 0.001 
89 (10.1) 
< 0.001 




USCDC 2000 
70 (7.9) 
104 (11.8) 
119 (13.5) 



IOTF^{c} 
 
 
31 (3.5)^{d} 
< 0.001^{g} 



70 (7.9)^{e} 
0.003^{h} 



166 (18.8)^{f} 



Total (n = 1860) 



WHO 2007 
152 (8.2) 
0.169 
125 (6.7)^{j} 
< 0.001 
188 (10.1) 
< 0.001 




USCDC 2000 
160 (8.6) 
230 (12.4) 
244 (13.1) 



IOTF^{c} 
 
 
67 (3.6)^{d} 
< 0.001^{g} 

115 (6.2)^{e} 
< 0.001^{h} 

346 (18.6)^{f} 



^{a }P values are for difference between the estimates by the WHO 2007 and USCDC 2000 references obtained by the McNemar test ^{b }n = 747 (boys aged five to ten years) for underweight prevalence with the WHO 2007 reference ^{c }IOTF estimates are based on cutoffs corresponding to the respective BMI cutoff value at age 18 years and above ^{d }Thinness grade three,^{e }Thinness grade two, and^{f }Thinness grade one ^{g }grade one thinness compared to the WHO 2007 reference,^{h }grade one thinness compared to the USCDC 2000 reference ^{i }n = 699 (girls aged five to ten years), and^{j }n = 1446 (children aged five to ten years) for underweight prevalence with the WHO 2007 reference 

Mushtaq et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:31 doi:10.1186/147124311231 