Interaction between early infectious episodes and gluten amount. Large amount of gluten-containing foods is represented by solid lines, and dotted line represents small-medium amounts. An interaction i.e. a synergistic effect, between infectious episodes and gluten is depicted by the non-parallelism between the two lower and two upper lines. The interaction was more pronounced in infants when breastfeeding was discontinued prior to gluten introduction. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, with reference 0–2 early infections, gluten introduced in small-medium amounts during on-going breastfeeding, listed from lowest to highest risk estimate were; 1.2 (0.8-2.1), 1.8 (1.1-2.9), 2.6 (1.4-5.0), 2.7 (1.7-4.3), 2.9 (1.8-4.5), 3.2 (1.8-5.9) and 5.6 (3.1-10).
Myléus et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:194 doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-194