Table 3

Association of selected risk factors with delays of development (univariable logistic regression, Odds Ratios and 95%-confidence intervals, significant associations in bold)
Age Sex Nationality Having siblings
Delays of development Below 5.49 years Between 5.50 and 6.50 years p-value 6.51 years or older p-value Girl Boy p-value German Non- German p-value No Yes p-value
Gross motor skills 1 0.94 (0.76-1.16) 0.57 1.02 (0.73-1.42) 0.92 1 2.65 (2.26-3.11) <0.0001 1 1.35 (1.10-1.66) 0.004 1 1.13 (0.93-1.36) 0.22
Fine motor coordination 1 0.47 (0.41-0.54) <0.0001 0.32 (0.24-0.42) <0,0001 1 3.22 (2.86-3.63) <0.0001 1 1.49 (1.28-1.73) <0.0001 1 1.08 (0.95-1.24) 0.25
Grapho- motor coordination 1 0.47 (0.40-0.54) <0.0001 0.32 (0.24-0.44) <0.0001 1 3.11 (2.72-3.54) <0.0001 1 1.69 (1.44-1.97) <0.0001 1 1.06 (0.91-1.23) 0.48
Pronunciation 1 0.89 (0.77-1.03) 0.12 0.84 (0.66-1.07) 0.15 1 2.06 (1.85-2.28) <0.0001 1 0.68 (0.57-0.82) <0.0001 1 1.33 (1.16-1.52) <0.0001
Grammar 1 0.75 (0.59-0.95) 0.02 1.09 (0.76-1.58) 0.64 1 1.87 (1.55-2.25) <0.0001 1 2.78 (2.26-3.41) <0.0001 1 1.01 (0.80-1.26) 0.95
Rhythm of speech 1 0.98 (0.73-1.32) 0.89 1.30 (0.83-2.01) 0.25 1 2.01 (1.68-2.57) <0.0001 1 0.65 (0.45-0.94) 0.02 1 1.02 (0.79-1.32) 0.86
Memory and concentration 1 0.50 (0.44-0.57) <0.0001 0.43 (0.33-0.56) <0.0001 1 1.44 (1.29-1.61) <0.0001 1 2.18 (1.84-2.44) <0.0001 1 0.98 (0.85-1.12) 0.77
Perseverance 1 0.40 (0.37-0.51) <0.0001 0.45 (0.33-0.62) <0.0001 1 1.47 (1.28-1.69) <0.0001 1 1.99 (1.67-2.37) <0.0001 1 0.92 (0.77-1.09) 0.32
Abstraction 1 0.83 (0.63-1.10) 0.20 1.03 (0.67-1.58) 0.89 1 1.73 (1.41-2.11) <0,0001 1 2.70 (2.15-3.39) <0.0001 1 0,95 (0.75-1.22) 0,70
Visual perception 1 0.97 (0.76-1.25) 0.83 1.32 (0.91-1.91) 0.14 1 2.11 (1.76-2.53) <0.0001 1 2.64 (2.16-3.22) <0.0001 1 0.95 (0.77-1.17) 0.61
Arithmetic 1 0.78 (0.61-0.99) 0.04 0.74 (0.49-1.12) 0.15 1 1.38 (1.15-1.64) <0.0001 1 2.61 (2.11-3.21) <0.0001 1 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 0.81
Psychosocial development 1 0.48 (0.40-0.57) <0.0001 0.54 (0.40-0.74) <0.0001 1 1.42 (1.23-1.63) <0.0001 1 1.73 (1.44-2.08) <0.0001 1 0.85 (0.72-1.01) 0.06

1=reference.

Stich et al.

Stich et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:188   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-188

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