Table 3

Univariate analysis of risk factors for neurological impairment
Variables Moderate/severe impairment crude ORa 95%CI
CWDs (N=41) N (%) TQQ negative(N=290) N (%)
Maternal age
  < 32 years old 19 (46.3) 168 (57.9) Ref.
  ≥ 32 years old 22 (53.7) 122 (42.1) 1.594 0.827 - 3.075
Education level
  Primary level or more 18 (43.9) 143 (49.3) Ref.
  No formal education 23 (56.1) 147 (50.7) 1.243 0.644 – 2.401
ANC visit
  Less than 2 times 32 (78.0) 268 (92.4) Ref.
  More than 3 times 9 (22.0) 22 (7.6) 3.426** 1.453 – 8.079
Tetanus shot
  Tetanus shot in antenatal care 30 (85.7) 268 (92.4) Ref.
  No tetanus shot 5 (14.3) 22 (7.6) 4.685** 1.473 – 14.89
Sex of children
  Male 27 (65.9) 149 (51.4) Ref.
  Female 14 (34.1) 141 (48.6) 1.825 0.920 – 3.621
Income level
  Over 3000 ksh per month 25 (61.0) 207 (71.4) Ref.
  Under 3000 ksh per month 16 (39.0) 83 (28.6) 1.596 0.811 – 3.142
Number of household member
  Less than 6 persons 22 (53.7) 138 (47.6) Ref.
  More than 7 persons 19 (46.3) 152 (52.4) 1.275 0.662 – 2.457
Number of children under five
  Less than 4 children 22 (53.7) 115 (39.7) Ref.
  More than 5 children 19 (46.3) 175 (60.3) 1.762 0.913 – 3.400
Birth place
  at health facility 15 (36.6) 88 (31.8) Ref.
  at own house / other 26 (63.4) 189 (68.2) 1.239 0.625 – 2.456
Birth difficulty
  Birth difficulty 34 (89.5) 244 (91.0) Ref.
  No difficulty 4 (10.5) 24 (9.0) 1.196 0.391 – 3.657
Neonatal insults
  Neonatal insults 4 (10.5) 12 (4.5) Ref.
  No insults 34 (89.5) 256 (95.5) 2.510 0.766 – 8.224
Postnatal care
  Less than 2 times 2 (4.9) 9 (3.1) Ref.
  More than 3 times 39 (95.1) 281 (96.9) 0.625 0.130 – 2.997
Full immunization
  Full immunization 31 (75.6) 240 (89.2) Ref.
  Not full 10 (24.4) 29 (10.8) 2.670* 1.187 – 6.003

a Crude odds ratio.

* p < 0.05.

** p < 0.01.

*** p < 0.001.

Kawakatsu et al.

Kawakatsu et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:186   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-186

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