Table 1

Comparison of HIV-infected children with and without visually obvious lipoatrophy
Children with lipoatrophy N=36 Children without lipoatrophy N=64 Univariate p-value (two-tailed) Multivariate p-value (two-tailed)a
Nadir absolute CD4 before ART initiation with standard deviation (SD) 681 (493) 886 (650) 0.29
Nadir CD4% before ART initiation (SD) 14% (8%) 19% (8%) >0.05
Maximum WHO clinical stage ever reached: 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 25% / 11% / 39% / 25% 17% / 9% / 46% / 28% 0.78
Median age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) 24 (9 – 43) 19 (9 – 37) 0.74
initiation, with inter-quartile range (IQR)
Median age at recruitment (months) (IQR) 89 (71 – 112) 71 (50 – 92) 0.001 0.75
Gender: Male / Female 21 (58%) / 15 (42%) 31 (48%) / 33 (52%) 0.41
Mean weight for age Z-score (SD) −1.1 (1.1) −0.9 (1.1) 0.39
Mean height for age Z-score (SD) −1.3 (1.2) −1.4 (1.1) 0.49
Mean body mass index Z-score (SD) −0.62 (1.00) −0.04 (1.08) 0.008
Absolute CD4 at recruitment (SD) 1296 (598) 1223 (631) 0.57
CD4% at recruitment (SD) 35% (7%) 32% (9%) 0.03 0.34
Mean current log10 viral load (SD) 1.98 (0.45) 2.23 (0.83) 0.10
Proportion on 2nd line therapy, defined as switch of ≥2 antiretroviral drugs 8% 6% 0.58
Any antiretroviral exposure, median months (IQR) 56 (44 – 75) 43 (25 – 60) 0.002 0.52
Stavudine, median months (IQR) 41 (27 – 48) 30 (7 – 49) 0.02 0.002b
Lamivudine, median months (IQR) 52 (41 – 72) 41 (25 – 58) 0.01 0.66
Lopinavir/r, median months (IQR) 26 (0 – 56) 36 (6 – 51) 0.58 0.82
Efavirenz, medianc months (IQR) 0 (0 – 44) 0 (0 – 4) 0.003 0.48

a Variables with dashes were not included in the multivariate model.

b Adjusted odds ratio: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3 - 2.9) for each additional year of accumulated exposure.

c Since fewer than half of the subjects in each group had been exposed to efavirenz, the median efavirenz exposure in both groups was 0 months. Mean efavirenz exposure was 23 months in HIV positive with lipoatrophy versus 7 months in HIV positive without lipoatrophy.

Innes et al.

Innes et al. BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:183   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-183

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