Table 3

Birth weight, length, and occipitofrontal circumference among NICU admissions with and without anomalies

Gastroschisis (N = 179)

No major anomaly (N = 15,788)

Renal anomalies (N = 37)

Other GI anomalies (N = 130)

Chromosome abnormalities (N = 479)

Congenital heart disease (N = 405)

Any other major anomalies (N = 4,040)


Gestational age (wks)

35.7 ± 2.0

34.2 ± 4.0

34.1 ± 5.1

38.3 ± 2.7

36.5 ± 3.3

38.5 ± 2.2

33.7 ± 5.7

Unadjusted BW (g)

2400 ± 502

2387 ± 918

2500 ± 1.140

3296 ± 701

2660 ± 861

3216 ± 638

2331 ± 118

BW z-score

-0.64 ± 0.86

0.01 ± 0.93

0.25 ± 1.00

0.13 ± 0.96

-0.44 ± 1.3

-0.11 ± 0.98

-0.04 ± 1.14

BW coefficienta

-310 (-366, -254)b

Referent

45 (-93, 184)

26 (-55, 107)

-244 (-298, -192) b

-94 (-141, -47) b

-7 (-23, 10)

Unadjusted LT (cm)

45.7 ± 3.3

46.0 ± 5.7

44.8 ± 6.8

50.6 ± 3.6

46.7 ± 5.3

50.4 ± 3.7

44.3 ± 8.1

LT z-score

-0.50 ± 1.19

0.42 ± 1.15

0.05 ± 1.69

0.57 ± 1.04

-0.37 ± 1.53

0.37 ± 1.24

0.11 ± 1.41

LT coefficienta

-2.1 (-2.5, -1.7)b

Referent

-1.3 (-2.6, -0.1)d

-0.7 (-1.1, -0.2)c

-2.3 (-2.7, -2.0)b

-1.2 (-1.5, -0.9)b

-1.1 (-1.2, -1.0)c

Unadjusted OFC (cm)

31.9 ± 1.9

31.5 ± 3.5

31.0 ± 4.4

34.2 ± 2.3

31.9 ± 3.1

33.9 ± 1.9

30.7 ± 5.3

OFC z-score

-0.36 ± 0.86

0.16 ± 1.02

0.04 ± 1.01

0.04 ± 0.97

-0.56 ± 1.30

-0.24 ± 0.95

0.15 ± 1.52

OFC coefficienta

-0.5 (-0.8, -0.3)b

referent

-0.6 (-1.1, 0.1)d

-0.6 (-0.8, -0.3)b

-1.3 (-1.5, -1.2)b

-1.0 (-1.2, -0.9)b

-0.3 (-0.4, -0.2)b

Ponderal index

2.5 ± 0.37

2.3 ± 0.48

2.6 ± 0.89

2.5 ± 0.33

2.5 ± 0.49

2.5 ± 0.34

2.4 ± 0.53

PI z-score

-0.06 ± 0.85

-0.24 ± 0.91

0.32 ± 1.86

-0.25 ± 0.53

-0.02 ± 1.18

-0.24 ± 0.59

-0.02 ± 1.17

PI coefficienta

0.10 (0.04, 0.15)b

referent

0.27 (0.00, 0.53)d

0.01 (-0.04, 0.03)

0.10 (0.05, 0.15)b

-0.01 (-0.04, 0.03)

0.08 (0.06, 0.10)b


a Determined using covariates gestational age, gender, multiple gestation status, maternal race, maternal cigarette smoking, GHP, pre-existing and gestational diabetes, maternal illicit drug use, previous pregnancies, and inborn status. The regression model explained 82% of the variation in birth weight (R2 = 0.818), 81% of the variation in LT (R2 = 0.810), 78% of the variation in OFC (R2 = 0.777) and 10% of the variation of PI (R2 = 0.103).

b p < 0.001

c p < 0.01

d p < 0.05

Payne et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:90   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-90

Open Data